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See also:
U+4E4E, 乎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E4E

[U+4E4D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E4F]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 4 丿+4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹火木 (HFD), four-corner 20409)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 82, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 131
  • Dae Jaweon: page 166, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 36, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+4E4E

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠂞
𠂠
Hokkien question particle

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
乎-oracle.svg 乎-bronze.svg 乎-seal.svg 乎-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʰraːs
*qʰaː
*qʰaː
*qʰaː
*qʰaː
*qʰaː
*qʰaː, *qʰaːs
*qʰaː
*ɢaː
*qʰaː, *qʰʷa, *qʰaː, *qʰʷa
*ɢaːs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢaː): semantic [Term?] (wind; air) + phonetic  (OC *kʰluːʔ) – original form of (OC *qʰaː, “to call; to cry”). Compare (OC *ɢeː).

Etymology 1[edit]

in; at; on
Attrited or unstressed form of (OC *qa) (Schuessler, 2007).

This etymology is incomplete. You can help Wiktionary by elaborating on the origins of this term.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: wu4 - rare.
Note:
  • ho͘ - literary;
  • hohⁿ/hôⁿ/hoⁿ/hōⁿ - vernacular (question particle).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /xu⁵⁵/
    Harbin /xu⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /xu²¹/
    Jinan /xu⁴²/
    Qingdao /xu²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /xu²⁴/
    Xi'an /xu²¹/
    Xining /xv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /xu⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /xu³¹/
    Ürümqi /xu⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /xu⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /xu³¹/
    /fu³¹/
    Guiyang /fu⁵⁵/
    Kunming /xu⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /xu³¹/
    Hefei /xu²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /xu¹¹/
    Pingyao /xu¹³/
    Hohhot /xu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /hu⁵³/
    /ɦu²³/
    Suzhou /ɦəu¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦu²¹³/
    Wenzhou /vu³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xu³¹/
    Tunxi /xu¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /fu¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɸu³³/
    Gan Nanchang /fu⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /fu¹¹/
    Taoyuan /fu¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /fu²¹/
    Nanning /fu⁵⁵/
    /wu²¹/
    Hong Kong /fu²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hɔ³⁵/
    /hɔ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hu⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xu⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /hu³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hu²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (33)
    Final () (23)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦuo/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦuo/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣo/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦɔ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣo/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣuo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hu › ‹ hu ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢˤa/ /*ɢˤa/
    English (Q particle) in, at

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 5189
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢaː/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. in; at; on
    2. A suffix placed after adjectives and adverbs to express praise or amazement.
    3. Sentence-final interrogative particle.
    4. Sentence-final exclamatory particle.
    5. Sentence-final imperative particle.
    6. Sentence-final speculative particle.

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Definitions[edit]

    1. Alternative form of (hō͘).

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ho)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: ho, McCune-Reischauer: ho, Yale: ho)
      • Name (hangeul): 어조사 (revised: eojosa, McCune-Reischauer: ǒjosa)
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hồ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.