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See also: and
U+6FDF, 濟
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6FDF

[U+6FDE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6FE0]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +14, 17 strokes, cangjie input 水卜X (EYX), four-corner 30123, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 656, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18498
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1066, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1771, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+6FDF

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsliːlʔ, *ʔsliːls): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *zliːl, *zliːls).

Etymology 1[edit]

Austroasiatic. Base form, without nominal n-infix, of 西 (OC *snə̂i) (Schuessler, 2007). See there for etymology.

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡seiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡seiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɛiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɛjH/
Li
Rong
/t͡seiH/
Wang
Li
/t͡sieiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sieiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zai3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 4/5 5/5
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsejH › ‹ tsejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]ˁ[i]j(ʔ)-s/ /*[ts]ˁ[i]j(ʔ)-s/
English cross a stream; rescue stop

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10048
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsliːls/

Definitions[edit]

  1. to cross a river; to ferry
  2. to help; to aid; to relieve
  3. to be of help; useful

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡seiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡seiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɛiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɛjX/
Li
Rong
/t͡seiX/
Wang
Li
/t͡sieiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sieiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zai2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/5 2/5 3/5
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsejX › ‹ tsejX › ‹ tsejX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]ˁ[i]jʔ/ /*[ts]ˁəjʔ/ /*[ts]ˁəjʔ/
English numerous stately [river name]

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10043
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsliːlʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (~水) Ji River
  2. Used in 濟濟济济 (jǐjǐ, “horde of people; multitude”).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 

chiefly Teochew


Yue-Hashimoto (1976) relates it to Proto-Tai *ʰlaːjᴬ (many; much), whence Zhuang lai. This Tai word is probably related to (OC *ʔl'aːl) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. (Min) many; much
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Kyūjitai form of

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

“to help; etc.”

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡seiH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 졩〮 (Yale: cyéy?) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 거느〮릴〯 졔〯 / 건널〮 졔〯 Recorded as Middle Korean 졔〯 (Yale: cyěy) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 건널 Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: cyey) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.
“many”

From Middle Chinese (MC t͡seiX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 졩〯 (Yale: cyěy?) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 셩ᄒᆞᆯ Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: cyey) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.


Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕe̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 건널 (geonneol je))

  1. Hanja form? of (to help; to aid; to relieve).
  2. (literary) Hanja form? of (to cross a river).
  3. (literary) Hanja form? of (many).
    제제 (濟濟)jeje(of people) many

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: tế ((tử)(lễ)(thiết))[1][2][3][4]
: Nôm readings: tế[1][3][5]

  1. Hán tự form of tế (to help; to aid; to relieve).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]