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See also: and 𭐴
U+591A, 多
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-591A

[U+5919]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+591B]
多 U+2F85D, 多
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F85D
夆
[U+2F85C]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 夢
[U+2F85E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
多-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 36, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈弓戈 (NINI), four-corner 27207, composition夕)

Derived characters[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 246, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5756
  • Dae Jaweon: page 489, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 862, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+591A

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡖈
𢑑

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
多-oracle.svg 多-bronze.svg 多-seal.svg 多-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意) – two pieces of meat (). In the bronze script, was corrupted into due to visual similarity, making into a duplication of . The form with was inherited in later scripts.

Chi (2010) suggests that meat is scarce in ancient times, so two pieces of meat is a lot, citing a passage from Mencius:

七十可以 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
Qīshí zhě kěyǐ shí ròu yǐ. [Pinyin]
Persons of seventy years may eat meat.

Chang Ping-chuan suggests that it is the duplicative nature of the character that gives the meaning of "many", just like in (“forest”), from (“tree; wood”).

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with (OC *tjaː, *tja, “many; all”), (OC *taː, “all”), (OC *hljaɡs, “many”) (Schuessler, 2007). Also compare (OC *daːds, *daːds, “large”).

Related to Proto-Tai *ʰlaːjᴬ (many, much), whence Thai หลาย (lǎai, many) and Zhuang lai (many).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: duó - colloquial variant (“so, how, what”).
Note: doe1 - colloquial variant (“few”).
Note:
  • duói - vernacular;
  • dó - literary;
  • do̿ - limited (e.g. 多謝).
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (5)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /tɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /tɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /tɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ta/
    Li
    Rong
    /tɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /tɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /tɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    duō
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    duō
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ta ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[t.l]ˁaj/
    English many

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 2637
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔl'aːl/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. many; much; a lot of; numerous
      街上  ―  Jiēshàng yǒu hěn duō rén.  ―  There is a lot of people in the street
      Antonym: (shǎo)
    2. (after an amount) over; and more; more than
      /   ―  liǎng nián duō  ―  more than two years
    3. (used in comparison structure 得多, 多了) much more; a lot more; far more
        ―  Tā bǐ wǒ gāo de duō.  ―  He is a lot taller than I am.
      病人今天  ―  Bìngrén jīntiān hǎo duō le.  ―  The patient is much better today.
    4. more
      應該運動 / 应该运动  ―  Wǒ yīnggāi duō yùndòng.  ―  I should exercise more.
      / [Cantonese]  ―  kam2 do1 zoeng1 pei5 [Jyutping]  ―  put on one more blanket
      今天昨天穿外套 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Jīntiān bǐ zuótiān lěng, děi duō chuān yī jiàn wàitào. [Pinyin]
      Today is colder than yesterday, so you have to put on one more jacket.
      屋企 [Cantonese, trad.]
      屋企 [Cantonese, simp.]
      uk1 kei5 do1 zo2 jat1 go3 jan4 [Jyutping]
      the house has a new member
    5. extra; in excess
      真係啤酒 [Cantonese, trad.]
      真系啤酒 [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 zan1 hai6 hou2 ji6 zeoi3, jam2 do1 loeng5 bui1 be1 zau2 zau6 lam3 zo2 laa3. [Jyutping]
      He gets drunk really easily. He passed out after drinking a few extra glasses of beer.
    6. (used in question) how; how much; what
      學校距離 [MSC, trad.]
      学校距离 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ dào xuéxiào yào zǒu duō yuǎn de jùlí? [Pinyin]
      What distance do you have to walk to school ?
        ―  duō gāo?  ―  How tall are you?
    7. (emphasis in exclamations) so; how; what
      漂亮  ―  Kàn tā duō piàoliàng a!  ―  Look how pretty she is!
      帽子可愛 [MSC, trad.]
      帽子可爱 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā dài de màozǐ duō kě'ài ya! [Pinyin]
      What an adorable hat she is wearing! / The hat she is wearing is so adorable!
    8. to have a lot
    9. to have more; to have too much; to have too many
      [MSC, trad.]
      [MSC, simp.]
      Tā mǎi le sì zhāng piào, duō le yī zhāng. [Pinyin]
      He bought four tickets, which was one too many.
    10. (Cantonese) few; little
      [Cantonese]  ―  gam3 doe1 doe1 [Jyutping]  ―  just this much (meaning “just very few”)
    11. (Cantonese) Short for 多士 (duōshì, “toast”).
      奶油 [Cantonese]  ―  naai5 jau4 do1 [Jyutping]  ―  condensed milk and butter on toast

    Usage notes[edit]

    • (over, more than): When the number is smaller or equal to 10, can be put after the measure word. If it is bigger than ten, has to be put before the measure word.
    • (more): Placing after the verb is correct but it is less natural than placing it before.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ta)
    • Korean: (, da)
    • Vietnamese: đa ()

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. many, much

    Readings[edit]

    (Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

    Compounds[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    () (ta-

    1. multi-
      ()(げん)()()(しょ)
      tagengojisho
      multilingual dictionary

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 많을 (maneul da))

    1. Hanja form? of (many, a lot of).

    Compounds[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (đa, nhật)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.