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Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *zloŋ, *zloŋ, *zloŋs): semantic  ‎(walk) + phonetic  ‎(OC *zloŋ)

Han character[edit]

(radical 60 +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹人人人人 (HOOOO), four-corner 28281, composition)

  1. from, by, since, whence, through

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 368, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 692, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 829, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+5F9E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (15)
Final: (7)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: cóng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zɨoŋ/ /d͡zioŋ/ /d͡zioŋ/ /d͡zuawŋ/ /d͡zioŋ/ /d͡zĭwoŋ/ /d͡zʱi̯woŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
cóng ‹ dzjowng › /*[dz]oŋ/ to follow

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1858 0 /*zloŋ/

Preposition[edit]

  1. from
  2. from (a time); since;
  3. through; via
  4. past (a place)

Adverb[edit]

  1. (followed by negative) never; ever

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (15)
Final: (7)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: zòng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zɨoŋH/ /d͡zioŋH/ /d͡zioŋH/ /d͡zuawŋH/ /d͡zioŋH/ /d͡zĭwoŋH/ /d͡zʱi̯woŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zòng ‹ dzjowngH › /*[dz]oŋ-s/ follower

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1859 0 /*zloŋs/

Noun[edit]

  1. follower

Adjective[edit]

  1. (of relatives) paternal (with the same surname)
    /   ―  cóngxiōng  ―  paternal male cousin elder than oneself with the same surname
  2. auxiliary; subsidiary

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (14)
Final: (7)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: cōng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰɨoŋ/ /t͡sʰioŋ/ /t͡sʰioŋ/ /t͡sʰuawŋ/ /t͡sʰioŋ/ /t͡sʰĭwoŋ/ /t͡sʰi̯woŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1856 0 /*zloŋ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 從容从容 (cóngróng).

Pronunciation[edit]


Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
zōng ‹ tsjowng › /*tsoŋ/ longitudinal

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (zòng).

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (zōng).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(jong, chong) (hangeul , , revised jong, chong, McCune-Reischauer chong, ch'ong, Yale cong, chong)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tòng, tùng, thủng, tuồng, thong, thung, thùng, tồng, tụng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]