Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also: and
U+5F9E, 從
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F9E

[U+5F9D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F9F]

Translingual[edit]

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character[edit]

(radical 60, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹人人人人 (HOOOO), four-corner 28281, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 368, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 692, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 829, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+5F9E

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𠚪

𬽡

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
從-bronze.svg 從-seal.svg 從-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (walk) + (follow). Represents original meaning in Classical Chinese, 'to follow'

Etymology 1[edit]

Etymology not certain. Perhaps cognate with Tibetan རྫོང་བ (rdzong ba, to dispatch; to dismiss) (Schuessler, 2007). Alternatively, compare Tibetan སྟོངས་པ (stongs pa, to accompany), or perhaps (OC *sloːŋs, “to escort; to send”).

Pronunciation 2 is a derivation of pronunciation 1.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: chêng, chn̂g - vernacular, chiông - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (15)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/d͡zioŋ/
Wang
Li
/d͡zĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱi̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cóng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cung4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cóng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzjowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]oŋ/
English to follow

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 1858
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zloŋ/
Definitions[edit]

  1. to follow; to come after
  2. to comply with; to submit to
    差點 / 差点  ―  Chādiǎn jiù cóng le tā le!  ―  (I) nearly gave in to him (and became his girlfriend). (slang)
  3. to obey; to accept
  4. to join; to be engaged in
  5. from (a place or time); since
    中國 / 中国  ―  cóng zhōngguó lái.  ―  He comes from China.
    國家 [MSC, trad.]
    国家 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ shì cóng nǎ ge guójiā lái de? [Pinyin]
    Where are you from? (Which country are you from?)
    我們我們錯誤學習 [MSC, trad.]
    我们我们错误学习 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen zhǐ néng cóng wǒmen de cuòwù zhōng xuéxí. [Pinyin]
    We can learn only from our mistakes.
    郵局經過 [MSC, trad.]
    邮局经过 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ měi tiān dōu cóng yóujú jīngguò. [Pinyin]
    I go past the post-office every day.
    早上9晚上6 [MSC, trad.]
    早上9晚上6 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiā diàn cóng zǎoshàng 9 diǎn kāi dào wǎnshàng 6 diǎn. [Pinyin]
    This shop is open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.
    我們小學年級就是朋友 [MSC, trad.]
    我们小学年级就是朋友 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen cóng xiǎoxué sān niánjí jiùshì péngyǒu le. [Pinyin]
    We have been friends since the third grade.
  6. through; via; by
    清風窗口 [MSC, trad.]
    清风窗口 [MSC, simp.]
    Yī zhèn qīngfēng cóng chuāngkǒu chuī lái. [Pinyin]
    A cool breeze came in through the window.
  7. (followed by negative) never; ever
    以前從沒 [MSC, trad.]
    以前从没 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ yǐqián cóngméi jiàn guò tā. [Pinyin]
    I have never seen her before
    從不違約 / 从不违约  ―  cóngbù wéiyuē.  ―  I never break my promise.
  8. 19th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "following" (𝌘)
  9. A surname.
Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (15)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zɨoŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zioŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zioŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zuawŋH/
Li
Rong
/d͡zioŋH/
Wang
Li
/d͡zĭwoŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱi̯woŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zòng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zung6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzjowngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]oŋ-s/
English follower

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 1859
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zloŋs/
Definitions[edit]

  1. (of relatives) paternal (with the same surname)
    /   ―  cóngxiōng  ―  paternal male cousin elder than oneself with the same surname
  2. auxiliary; subsidiary
  3. follower; attendant; entourage
Compounds[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Korean: (jong, servant; slave)

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (14)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰioŋ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cōng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cung1
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 1856
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zloŋ/
Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 從容从容 (cóngróng, “calm; at ease”).

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsoŋ/
English longitudinal

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (zòng, “straight; vertical”).
  2. Alternative form of (zòng, “to give free reign to”).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (zōng).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zɨoŋ).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 쬬ᇰ (Yale: ccyòng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 조ᄎᆞᆯ Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: cyong) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 조ᄎᆞᆯ Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: cyong) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 좇을 (jocheul jong))

  1. Hanja form? of (to follow; to pursue).
  2. Hanja form? of (to obey; to comply).
  3. Hanja form? of (from; since).

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zɨoŋH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 쬬ᇰ〮 (Yale: ccyóng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 결ᄂᆡ 죵 Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: cyong) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕo̞(ː)ŋ]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja[edit]

(eum (jong))

  1. Hanja form? of (prefix indicating cousinhood).
    Synonym: ( (dang))

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: tòng, tùng, thủng, tuồng, thong, thung, thùng, tồng, tụng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References[edit]