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See also:
U+958B, 開
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-958B

[U+958A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+958C]
開 U+2F9EE, 開
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F9EE
𨯺
[U+2F9ED]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 䦕
[U+2F9EF]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 169, +4, 12 strokes, cangjie input 日弓一廿 (ANMT), four-corner 77441, composition(U+958B) or ⿵(U+2F9EE))

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1331, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41233
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1835, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4286, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+958B

Chinese[edit]

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
開-slip.svg 開-ancient.svg 開-seal.svg 開-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (door) + (latch) + (a pair of hands) — a pair of hands opening a latched door. and are combined into since the seal script.

Etymology 1[edit]

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms 𫔭 obsolete Singapore simp.
𨵑

According to STEDT, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-k(w)a-j (mouth; opening; spread; door; face; jaw). Cognate with (OC *ɡʷaːʔ, “door”), Tibetan (kha, mouth), Tibetan སྒོ (sgo, door).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kŭi - vernacular;
  • kăi - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khui - vernacular;
    • khai - literary.
    Note:
    • kui1 - vernacular;
    • kai1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰʌi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰəi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰɒi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəj/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰᴀi/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰɒi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰɑ̆i/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kāi
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hoi1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kāi kāi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khoj › ‹ khoj ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Nə-[k]ʰˁəj/ /*[k]ʰˁəj/
    English to open (v.i.) to open (v.t.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7348
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰɯːl/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to open; to unlatch; to unfasten
      不到 / 不到  ―  kāi budào zhè shàn mén.  ―  I can't open the door.
      商店 / 商店  ―  Shāngdiàn kāi dào bā diǎn.  ―  The shop opens till eight o'clock.
    2. to start; to turn on; to switch on
      電燈 / 电灯  ―  kāi diàndēng  ―  to switch the light on
      電腦 / 电脑  ―  kāi diànnǎo  ―  to turn on the computer
    3. to make an opening; to open up
      /   ―  kāihuāng  ―  to open up wasteland
      運河 / 运河  ―  kāi yùnhé  ―  to dig a canal
      /   ―  zài qiáng shàng kāi ge dòng  ―  to make a hole in the wall
    4. to open out
      /   ―  Huā kāi le.  ―  The flower is blooming.
    5. (of a frozen river) to thaw
    6. to begin; to start
      /   ―  kāigōng  ―  to start working
    7. to start; to set up; to open
      燒臘 / 烧腊 [Cantonese]  ―  hoi1 gaan1 siu1 laap6 pou3-2 [Jyutping]  ―  to open a roasted meats shop
      銀行帳戶 [MSC, trad.]
      银行帐户 [MSC, simp.]
      kāi le ge yínxíng zhànghù. [Pinyin]
      I opened a bank account.
    8. to remove (a ban or restriction)
      /   ―  kāijìn  ―  to lift a ban
      /   ―  kāizhāi  ―  to resume a meat diet
    9. to boil (bubble and turn to vapour)
      沒有 / 没有  ―  Shuǐ kāi le méiyǒu?  ―  Has the water boiled?
    10. to write out (a prescription, check, invoice, etc.)
      支票 / 支票  ―  kāi zhīpiào  ―  to write a check
      我們學生 [MSC, trad.]
      我们学生 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen kāi le yī zhāng xuéshēng bìdú shūdān. [Pinyin]
      We made a list of required books for students.
    11. to book (a hotel room)
    12. to operate/run a business
    13. to hold (a meeting, exhibition, etc.)
      /   ―  kāihuì  ―  to hold a meeting
    14. to pay
      工資 / 工资  ―  kāi gōngzī  ―  to pay wages
    15. to operate; to drive (a vehicle)
      /   ―  kāichē  ―  to drive a car
      /   ―  kāipào  ―  to fire a cannon
      船長對岸 [MSC, trad.]
      船长对岸 [MSC, simp.]
      Chuánzhǎng bǎ chuán kāi dào duì'àn qù. [Pinyin]
      The captain sailed the boat to the opposite bank.
      火車已經 / 火车已经  ―  Huǒchē yǐjīng kāi le.  ―  The train has already departed.
    16. apart; away
      /   ―  sànkāi  ―  to separate and strew; to scatter; to disperse
      /   ―  zǒukāi  ―  to move out of the way
      / [Cantonese]  ―  co5 hoi1 [Jyutping]  ―  to sit farther away
    17. (informal) Short for 開除开除 (kāichú, “to fire; to sack; to discharge; to dismiss”).
    18. (Cantonese) Habitual aspect particle.
      有冇乜嘢 [Cantonese, trad.]
      有冇乜嘢 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 jau5 mou5 sik6 hoi1 di1 mat1 je5 joek6 gaa3? [Jyutping]
      Are you taking any medication?
      豉油 [Cantonese, trad.]
      𩠌豉油 [Cantonese, simp.]
      heoi3 hoi1 maai5 sung3, bong1 ngo5 maai5 zeon1 si6 jau4 aa1. [Jyutping]
      When you go and do your groceries, buy a bottle of soy sauce for me.
    19. (physics) Short for 開爾文开尔文 (kāi'ěrwén, “kelvin”).
    20. (Chinese phonetics) Short for 開口开口 (kāikǒu, “open-mouthed”).
    21. A surname​.
    Synonyms[edit]
    Antonyms[edit]
    Compounds[edit]
    Descendants[edit]
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (かい) (kai)
    • Vietnamese: khai ()

    Others:

    • Lao: ໄຂ (khai, open)
    • Thai: ไข (kǎi, open)
    • Zhuang: hai (open)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms 𫔭 obsolete Singapore simp.
    K

    Borrowed from English K (karat).

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. karat (measure of gold purity)

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    trad.
    simp. *
    alternative forms

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

    Definitions[edit]

    1. (dialectal Cantonese, dialectal Hakka) Perfective aspect particle.
    Synonyms[edit]

    Japanese[edit]

    Ryakuji for 開, based on ryakuji for ; compare also and 𫔭.

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. open

    Readings[edit]

    Antonyms[edit]

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    かい
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰʌi).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (かい) (kai

    1. open
    2. start; beginning

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰʌi). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄀᆡ (koy) (Yale: koy) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (yeol gae))

    1. Hanja form? of (open).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: khai[1][2][3][4]
    : Nôm readings: khơi[5], khui[5]

    1. (literary) chữ Hán form of khai (to open, to start, to begin).
    2. Nôm form of khui (to open, to pry open).

    References[edit]