Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+82E6, 苦
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-82E6

[U+82E5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+82E7]
苦 U+2F996, 苦
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F996
芽
[U+2F995]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 𦬼
[U+2F997]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
Mainland China and Japan
苦-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 140, +6 in traditional Chinese, 艸+5 in mainland China and Japanese, 9 strokes in traditional Chinese, 8 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 廿十口 (TJR), four-corner 44604, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1023, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30797
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1482, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3186, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+82E6

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𡿵
𩇵

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
苦-seal.svg 苦-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs): semantic (grass) + phonetic (OC *kaːʔ) – bitter (as in bitter plants).

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka. Cognate with (OC *kaːn, “liver”).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (29) (29)
Final () (23) (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰɔX/ /kʰɔH/
Li
Rong
/kʰoX/ /kʰoH/
Wang
Li
/kʰuX/ /kʰuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuoX/ /kʰuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fu2 fu3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˁaʔ/
English bitter

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4242 4243
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰaːʔ/ /*kʰaːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. bitter
      ―  guā  ―  bittermelon
    Antonym:
  2. Alternative name for (, “bitter plant”).
  3. difficult; painful; hard
  4. hardship; suffering
      ―  xīn  ―  laborious; hard; miserable
  5. (dialectal) excessive
  6. to cause someone suffering; to give someone a hard time
  7. to suffer from; to be handicapped by
  8. (obsolete or Min Dong) to worry about; to be concerned about
  9. strenuously; painstakingly
      ―  xiào  ―  to force a smile

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ku)
  • Korean: (, go)
  • Vietnamese: khổ ()

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of ().

Further reading[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. pain, anguish, suffering, discomfort, hardship, worry
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha, suffering

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (khuX, suffering).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (ku

  1. suffering
  2. (Buddhism) dukkha

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 괴로울 (goeroul go))

  1. Hanja form? of (suffering, pain).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: khổ
: Nôm readings: cỏ, khó, khủ, khổ,

References[edit]