Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
U+809D, 肝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-809D

[U+809C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+809E]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 130, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 月一十 (BMJ), four-corner 71240, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 974, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29273
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1425, character 31
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2044, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+809D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*krads, *krads, *ked, *kad
*kaːn
竿 *kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːns
*kaːn
*kaːn, *ɡaːn
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ, *kaːns, *ɡaːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns
*kaːns, *ɡraːns
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kaːnʔ
*kʰaːn
*kʰaːn, *kʰaːns, *kreːn, *kan
*kʰaːnʔ, *kʰaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns
*ŋaːn, *ŋaːns, *ɦŋaːns, *ŋ̊ʰraːn
*ŋaːns, *hŋaːn, *ŋaːd
*ŋɡaːns
*qʰaːn, *ɢaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *qʰaːns
*qʰaːnʔ, *ɡaːns
*qʰaːnʔ
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns, *kʰraːn
*ɡaːns, *ɡraːnʔ
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡʷranʔ
*ɡraːns
*kan
*ɡan, *ɡʷad
*qʰan
*qʰan
*qʰaːŋʔ
*ɡʷaːnʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn): semantic  (flesh) + phonetic  (OC *kaːn) – a body part.

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b-ka-(n/m/ŋ) (bitter; salty; bile; liver), in which case it would be related to (OC *kʰaːʔ, *kʰaːs, “bitter”); also compare Proto-Bodo-Garo *bi-ka (liver), whence Bodo (India) [script needed] (bi-ka, liver), Garo bika (liver).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-kal ~ *s-gal (lower back; kidney), whence Tibetan མཁལ་མ (mkhal ma, kidney), Mizo kal (kidney), Chepang गल्‌ (kidney), Burmese ခါး (hka:, waist).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • koaⁿ - vernacular;
  • kan - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kan/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kan ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.kˤa[r]/
    English liver

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3568
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːn/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. liver (Classifier: ; )
      [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Wǒ bù chī dǔ yě bù chī gān. [Pinyin]
      I don't eat tripe or liver.
      身體大部分膽固醇消化食物 [MSC, trad.]
      身体大部分胆固醇消化食物 [MSC, simp.]
      Shēntǐ de dàbùfēn dǎngùchún shì zài gān hé cháng nèi yóu xiāohuà de shíwù zhì chéng de. [Pinyin]
      Most of the body's cholesterol is made in the liver and intestine from digested food.
    2. (figuratively) mind; thoughts
    3. (video game, neologism) to grind; to repeat a task day and night, which may exhaust the liver, in order to achieve a specific goal; grindy
      遊戲吸引實在 [MSC, trad.]
      游戏吸引实在 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè yóuxì hěn xīyǐn rén, dàn wǒ shízài gān bù dòng le. Tā tài gān le. [Pinyin]
      This game is attractive, but I really can't grind anymore. It's too grindy.

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana きも, rōmaji kimo)

    1. the liver
    2. innards

    References[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gan) (hangeul , revised gan, McCune–Reischauer kan, Yale kan)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (can, gan)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.