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U+8089, 肉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8089

[U+8088]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+808A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes
Stroke order
肉-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • U+2EBC (when used as a left Chinese radical in compositions)

The left component form ⺼looks very similar to ⺝, the left radical form of (moon), and is often drawn identically in compounds, though they are etymologically distinct, and careful usage distinguishes the cross strokes, with ⺼ written with unattached diagonal strokes. This is particularly an issue in looking up characters by radical; compare 月 index and 肉 index.

The radical form ⺼ may also appear twisted to a diagonal, resembling with an added line, as in , , and .

Han character[edit]

(radical 130, +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人月人 (OBO), four-corner 40227, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #130, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 973, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29236
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1424, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 2931, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8089

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script
肉-oracle.svg 肉-bronze.svg 肉-silk.svg 肉-slip.svg 肉-seal.svg 肉-bigseal.svg 肉-clerical.svg

Pictogram (象形) – ribs of an animal’s torso or simply a physical representation of a slice of meat. For more images, please refer to this link: http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk/Lexis/lexi-mf/search.php?word=肉

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-nja-k (meat, flesh).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • rou4 - literary;
  • ru2 - vernacular.
  • (Dungan)
    (Note: Dungan pronunciation is currently experimental and may be inaccurate.)
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • jio̍k, lio̍k - literary;
    • he̍k, hia̍k - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐou⁵¹/
    Harbin /ʐou⁵³/
    Tianjin /iou⁵³/
    /ʐou⁵³/
    Jinan /ʐou²¹/
    Qingdao /iou⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐou³¹²/
    Xi'an /ʐou⁴⁴/
    Xining /ʐɯ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ʐəu¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʐou¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʐɤu²¹³/
    Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
    Chengdu /zu³¹/
    /zəu¹³/
    Guiyang /zu²¹/
    Kunming /ʐəu²¹²/
    /ʐu³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐəɯ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ʐɯ⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /zəu⁴⁵/ 豬~
    /zuəʔ²/ ~桂
    Pingyao /ʐəu³⁵/
    Hohhot /ʐəu⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵioʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ȵioʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zoʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ȵɤu²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /niu²²/
    Tunxi /ȵiu¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʐəu²⁴/
    Xiangtan /iəɯ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiuʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋiuk̚¹/
    Taoyuan /ŋiuk̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jok̚²/
    Nanning /juk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jʊk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔk̚⁵/
    /hik̚⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nyʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ny⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nek̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔk̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (4)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨuk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiuk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiuk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵuwk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiuk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭuk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯uk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ròu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyuwk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*k.nuk/
    English meat, flesh

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10866
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njuɡ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. meat; flesh
      /   ―  zhūròu  ―  pork
        ―  niúròu  ―  beef
      從不 / 从不  ―  Wǒ cóngbù chī ròu.  ―  I never eat meat.
      異常鮮美 [MSC, trad.]
      异常鲜美 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè zhǒng yú de ròu yìcháng xiānměi. [Pinyin]
      The flesh of this kind of fish has exceptional delicacy.
      他們可以飽餐一頓這些動物 [MSC, trad.]
      他们可以饱餐一顿这些动物 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen kěyǐ bǎocānyīdùn zhèxiē sǐ dòngwù de ròu. [Pinyin]
      They could feast on the flesh of the dead animals.
    2. (specifically) pork
      三鮮餃子 / 三鲜饺子  ―  ròusānxiān de jiǎozi  ―  three delicious ingredient pork dumpling
      蒜薹  ―  suàntái chǎo ròu  ―  garlic chive and pork stir-fry
    3. body
      /   ―  ròu  ―  physical body
    4. flesh; pulp
      桃子 [MSC, trad.]
      桃子 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè táozi ròu wèi tián zhī duō. [Pinyin]
      The flesh of the peach was sweet and juicy.
    5. (dialectal) spongy; squashy; flabby
      西瓜瓤兒 [MSC, trad.]
      西瓜瓤儿 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè xīguā rángr tài ròu le. [Pinyin]
      The pulp of this watermelon is too spongy.
    6. (dialectal) slow; sluggish
      做事 / 做事  ―  Zhè ge rén zuòshì zhēn ròu.  ―  This person does everything sluggishly.

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (にく) (niku)
    • Korean: (, yuk)
    • Vietnamese: nhục ()

    Etymology 2[edit]

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms
    𬁲

    Unclear. Reminiscent of (OC *mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs, “dorsal meat”) (Schuessler, 2007).

    Alternatively, it may be of substrate origin. Compare (Deng, 1994):

    Pronunciation[edit]


    Note: chiefly overseas.

    Definitions[edit]

    (Min Nan)

    1. meat; flesh
      / [Min Nan]  ―  ti-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  pork
      [Min Nan]  ―  gû-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  beef
    2. pork
      [Min Nan]  ―  bah-kut [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  pork ribs
    3. flesh; pulp
      龍眼乾 / 龙眼干 [Min Nan]  ―  lêng-géng-koaⁿ bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  flesh of dried longan
    4. main part of an object
      [Min Nan]  ―  to-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  blade of a knife or sword

    References[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. flesh, meat

    Readings[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Not used in isolation in modern Japanese. Persists in compounds.

    Cognate with (shishi, beast, especially one used for meat).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (しし) (shishi

    1. (obsolete) meat
    2. (obsolete) flesh, as of one's body
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 16, poem 3885); text here:
        者 御奈麻須波夜志
        ()(しし)はみ(なます)はやし
        wa ga shishi wa mi-namasu hayashi
        use my flesh for your side-dish
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    にく
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (*njiuk). Compare modern Min Nan (jiok8) or Hakka (ngiuk7).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (にく) (niku

    1. meat, the muscle and fat tissue of an animal used as food
    2. the flesh of an animal
    3. the flesh of a fruit or vegetable
    4. one's body, as opposed to spirit
    5. the thickness of a thing
      (いた)(にく)
      ita no niku
      the thickness of a board
    6. (figuratively) the flesh or meat of something, such as an idea, structure, or argument
      ()(ろん)(にく)をつける
      giron ni niku o tsukeru
      to put some meat on an argument, to flesh out an argument
    7. an ink pad, a stamp pad
    8. (theater, kabuki) short for 肉襦袢 (niku juban): flesh-toned undergarments worn by actors and shown when the character has to display their skin
    Synonyms[edit]
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 고기 (gogi yuk))

    1. Hanja form? of (meat, flesh).

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (nhục)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.