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Character
Unicode name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8089
Code point U+8089
Entity number 肉
Unicode block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8088] [U+808A]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
肉-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • U+2EBC (when used as a left Chinese radical in compositions)

The radical form ⺼ looks very similar to ‎(moon), and is often drawn identically in compounds, though they are etymologically distinct, and careful usage distinguishes the cross strokes, with ⺼ written with unattached diagonal strokes. This is particularly an issue in looking up characters by radical; compare 月 index and 肉 index.

The radical form ⺼ may also appear twisted to a diagonal, resembling with an added dot, as in , , and .

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
肉-oracle.svg 肉-bronze.svg 肉-bigseal.svg 肉-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – ribs of an animal’s torso.

Han character[edit]

(radical 130 +0, 6 strokes, cangjie input 人月人 (OBO), four-corner 40227)

  1. KangXi radical 130

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 973, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29236
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1424, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 2931, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+8089

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-nja-k ‎(meat, flesh).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐou⁵¹/
Harbin /ʐou⁵³/
Tianjin /iou⁵³/
/ʐou⁵³/
Jinan /ʐou²¹/
Qingdao /iou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐou³¹²/
Xi'an /ʐou⁴⁴/
Xining /ʐɯ²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəu¹³/
Lanzhou /ʐou¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤu²¹³/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /zu³¹/
/zəu¹³/
Guiyang /zu²¹/
Kunming /ʐəu²¹²/
/ʐu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐəɯ⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʐɯ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /zəu⁴⁵/ 豬~
/zuəʔ²/ ~桂
Pingyao /ʐəu³⁵/
Hohhot /ʐəu⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ȵioʔ¹/
Suzhou /ȵioʔ³/
Hangzhou /zoʔ²/
Wenzhou /ȵɤu²¹³/
Hui Shexian /niu²²/
Tunxi /ȵiu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʐəu²⁴/
Xiangtan /iəɯ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiuʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiuk̚¹/
Taoyuan /ŋiuk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jok̚²/
Nanning /juk̚²²/
Hong Kong /juk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔk̚⁵/
/hik̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nyʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ny⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nek̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔk̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (4)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨuk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiuk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiuk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵuwk̚/
Li
Rong
/ȵiuk̚/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭuk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯uk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ròu
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyuwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*k.nuk/
English meat, flesh

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10866
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njuɡ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. meat, flesh
    /   ―  zhūròu  ―  pork
      ―  niúròu  ―  beef
    從不 / 从不  ―  Wǒ cóngbù chī ròu.  ―  I never eat meat.
    異常鮮美 / 异常鲜美  ―  Zhè zhǒng yú de ròu yìcháng xiānměi.  ―  The flesh of this kind of fish has exceptional delicacy.
    他們可以飽餐一頓這些動物 [MSC, trad.]
    他们可以饱餐一顿这些动物 [MSC, simp.]
    Tāmen kěyǐ bǎocānyīdùn zhèxiē sǐ dòngwù de ròu. [Pinyin]
    They could feast on the flesh of the dead animals.
  2. body
    /   ―  ròu  ―  physical body
  3. flesh, pulp
    桃子 / 桃子  ―  Zhè táozǐ ròu wèi tián zhī duō.  ―  The flesh of the peach was sweet and juicy.
  4. (dialect) spongy, squashy, flabby
    西瓜 / 西瓜  ―  Zhè xīguā rángr tài ròu le.  ―  The pulp of this watermelon is too spongy.
  5. (dialect) slow, sluggish
    做事 / 做事  ―  Zhè ge rén zuòshì zhēn ròu.  ―  This person does everything sluggishly.

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Etymology 2[edit]

Possibly of substrate origin, perhaps from Proto-Austronesian *babuy ‎(wild pig) (see baboy).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐou⁵¹/
Harbin /ʐou⁵³/
Tianjin /iou⁵³/
/ʐou⁵³/
Jinan /ʐou²¹/
Qingdao /iou⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐou³¹²/
Xi'an /ʐou⁴⁴/
Xining /ʐɯ²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʐəu¹³/
Lanzhou /ʐou¹³/
Ürümqi /ʐɤu²¹³/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /zu³¹/
/zəu¹³/
Guiyang /zu²¹/
Kunming /ʐəu²¹²/
/ʐu³¹/
Nanjing /ʐəɯ⁴⁴/
Hefei /ʐɯ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /zəu⁴⁵/ 豬~
/zuəʔ²/ ~桂
Pingyao /ʐəu³⁵/
Hohhot /ʐəu⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ȵioʔ¹/
Suzhou /ȵioʔ³/
Hangzhou /zoʔ²/
Wenzhou /ȵɤu²¹³/
Hui Shexian /niu²²/
Tunxi /ȵiu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʐəu²⁴/
Xiangtan /iəɯ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiuʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiuk̚¹/
Taoyuan /ŋiuk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jok̚²/
Nanning /juk̚²²/
Hong Kong /juk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔk̚⁵/
/hik̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nyʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ny⁴²/
Shantou (Min Nan) /nek̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔk̚³/

Definitions[edit]

(Min Nan)

  1. meat, flesh
    / [Min Nan]  ―  ti-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  pork
    [Min Nan]  ―  gû-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  beef
  2. pork
    [Min Nan]  ―  bah-kut [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  pork ribs
  3. flesh, pulp
    龍眼乾 / 龙眼干 [Min Nan]  ―  lêng-géng-koaⁿ bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  flesh of dried longan
  4. main part of an object
    [Min Nan]  ―  to-bah [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  blade of a knife or sword
References[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. flesh, meat

Readings[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
しし
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Not used in isolation in modern Japanese. Persists in compounds.

Cognate with ‎(shishi, beast, especially one used for meat).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しし, romaji shishi)

  1. (obsolete) meat
  2. (obsolete) flesh, as of one's body
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 16, poem 3885); text here:
      者 御奈麻須波夜志
      我がは み膾はやし
      わ が しし は みなます はやし
      wa ga shishi wa mi-namasu hayashi
      use my flesh for your side-dish
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
にく
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(*njiuk). Compare modern Min Nan ‎(jiok8) or Hakka ‎(niuk7).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana にく, romaji niku)

  1. meat, the muscle and fat tissue of an animal used as food
  2. the flesh of an animal
  3. the flesh of a fruit or vegetable
  4. one's body, as opposed to spirit
  5. the thickness of a thing
     (いた) (にく)
    ita no niku
    the thickness of a board
  6. (figuratively) the flesh or meat of something, such as an idea, structure, or argument
    議論 (ぎろん) (にく)をつける
    giron ni niku o tsukeru
    to put some meat on an argument, to flesh out an argument
  7. an ink pad, a stamp pad
  8. (theater, kabuki) short for 肉襦袢 ‎(niku juban): flesh-toned undergarments worn by actors and shown when the character has to display their skin
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(yuk, yu) (hangeul , , McCune-Reischauer yuk, yu, Yale yuk, yu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.