使

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See also: 便
使 U+4F7F, 使
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F7F

[U+4F7E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F80]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

使 (radical 9 +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人十中大 (OJLK), four-corner 25206, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 101, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 573
  • Dae Jaweon: page 213, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 145, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4F7F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
使
alt. forms (sai2; Cantonese “need”)
(sai2; Cantonese “need”)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character 使





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*rɯs
*ʔsrɯs
*ʔsrɯs
*ʔsrɯs, *zrɯs
*srɯʔ
使 *srɯʔ, *srɯs
*srɯʔ, *srɯs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *srɯʔ, *srɯs): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *rɯs).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • sai2 - vernacular;
  • si2 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • sāi - vernacular;
    • sṳ̄ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • sái - vernacular (including Quanzhou “to fuck”);
    • sú/sír - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character 使
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃɨX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃɨX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃieX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂɨX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃiəX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃĭəX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂiX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shǐ
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character 使
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shǐ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sriX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-rəʔ/
    English send; cause

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character 使
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11488
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*srɯʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    使

    1. to order to do
    2. to send; to dispatch
    3. to let; to make; to cause to
    4. to use; to employ
    5. to play; to play with; to resort to; to dally with
    6. to indulge
    7. (Cantonese) need to [do something]; have to
      Nei5 m4 sai2 lo2 gam3 do1! [Jyutping]
      You don't need to get so much!
    8. (Cantonese) need [something]; require; want strongly
    9. (Quanzhou Min Nan, vulgar) to fuck
    Synonyms[edit]
    • (Cantonese) (need): 需要 (xūyào)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • sái - vernacular;
    • sé̤ṳ - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • sài - vernacular;
    • sù/sìr - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character 使
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (21)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃɨH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃɨH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃieH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃiəH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃĭəH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shì
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character 使
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shǐ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sriH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-rəʔ-s/
    English envoy

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character 使
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11491
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    𩢲
    Old
    Chinese
    /*srɯs/

    Definitions[edit]

    使

    1. (historical) to send as an envoy abroad
    2. envoy; messenger

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    使

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    使 (hiragana , rōmaji shi)

    1. messenger

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    使 (sa, si) (hangeul , , revised sa, si, McCune-Reischauer sa, si)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    使 (sứ, sử, sửa, thửa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]