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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
令-oracle.svg 令-bronze.svg 令-silk.svg 令-bigseal.svg 令-seal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + 

Han character[edit]

(radical 9 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓戈 (OINI), four-corner 80307, composition (G) or ⿱ (TV) or ⿱𠃌 (JK))

  1. command, order
  2. 'commandant', magistrate
  3. allow, cause

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 93, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 387
  • Dae Jaweon: page 198, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 111, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EE4

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /liŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /liŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /liŋ⁵³/
Jinan /liŋ²¹/
Qingdao /liŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /liŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /liŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /liə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /liŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /lĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /liŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /nin³⁵/
Chengdu /nin¹³/
Guiyang /nin²¹³/
Kunming /lĩ¹/
Nanjing /lin⁴⁴/
Hefei /lin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /liəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /liŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /lĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /liŋ¹³/
Suzhou /lin³¹/
Hangzhou /lin¹³/
Wenzhou /leŋ²²/
Hui Shexian /liʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /lɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lin⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /nin⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lin²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lin⁵³/
Taoyuan /lin⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /leŋ²²/
Nanning /leŋ²²/
Hong Kong /liŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /lɛiŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /leiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /leŋ³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /leŋ³³/ 使~(俗)
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/5

Initial: (37)
Final: (77)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lián
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/liᴇn/ /liɛn/ /ljæn/ /lian/ /liɛn/ /lĭɛn/ /li̯ɛn/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/5

Initial: (37)
Final: (121)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: líng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/liᴇŋ/ /liɛŋ/ /liæŋ/ /liajŋ/ /liɛŋ/ /lĭɛŋ/ /li̯ɛŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/5

Initial: (37)
Final: (125)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: líng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/leŋ/ /leŋ/ /lɛŋ/ /lɛjŋ/ /leŋ/ /lieŋ/ /lieŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 4/5

Initial: (37)
Final: (121)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lìng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/liᴇŋH/ /liɛŋH/ /liæŋH/ /liajŋH/ /liɛŋH/ /lĭɛŋH/ /li̯ɛŋH/
Character (), Pronunciation 5/5

Initial: (37)
Final: (125)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: IV
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lìng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/leŋH/ /leŋH/ /lɛŋH/ /lɛjŋH/ /leŋH/ /lieŋH/ /lieŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
líng ‹ leng › /*[r]ˤiŋ/ 脊令 tsjek.leng (a kind of water bird)
líng ‹ ljeng › /*riŋ/ send (a person)
lìng ‹ ljengH › /*riŋ-s/ issue a command

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
8271 2 /*ren/
8277 0 /*reŋ/
8284 0 /*reŋs/
8306 0 /*reːŋ/
8332 0 /*reːŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    令人 (lìngrén)
  2. (archaic) governor of a county

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term
れい
Grade: 4
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana れい, romaji rei)

  1. order, command

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ryeong) (hangeul , revised ryeong, McCune-Reischauer ryŏng, Yale ryeng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(lệnh, lanh, lành, lênh, lình, liệng, lịnh, loanh)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]