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U+7C89, 粉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7C89

[U+7C88]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7C8A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 119, +4, 10 strokes, cangjie input 火木金尸竹 (FDCSH), four-corner 98927, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 907, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 26872
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1332, character 33
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3143, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+7C89

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
粉-silk.svg 粉-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *pɯnʔ): semantic (rice) + phonetic (OC *pɯn, *bɯns)face powder made of rice.

Etymology 1[edit]

The earliest sense is believed to be "face powder". The term is then used for the color of this powder, "white", and later also the color of a face with this cosmetic, "pink". In early modern Chinese, the ancient "face powder" sense is partly reinforced by 粉底 (fěndǐ) (from English foundation). (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (59)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pɨunX/
Pan
Wuyun
/piunX/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuənX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/punX/
Li
Rong
/piuənX/
Wang
Li
/pĭuənX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯uənX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fěn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fěn
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjunX ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə.pənʔ/
English flour

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3151
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pɯnʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. powder
    小麥 [MSC, trad.]
    小麦 [MSC, simp.]
    Miànfěn shì xiǎomài zuò de fěn. [Pinyin]
    Flour is a powder made from wheat.
    1. face powder
      墨登場 / 墨登场  ―  fěnmò-dēngchǎng  ―  to go on the stage
    2. (Cantonese, slang) heroin
  2. (transitive) to powder
      ―  fěnsuì  ―  to smash
    身碎骨  ―  fěnshēn-suìgǔ  ―  to have one's body smashed to pieces
  3. (intransitive) to become powder
  4. (color)
    1. (~色) pink
      頭髮 [MSC, trad.]
      头发 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ bǎ tóufà rǎn chéng le fěn de. [Pinyin]
      I dyed my hair pink.
    2. white
        ―  fěn  ―  white wall
      /   ―  fěnshì  ―  to whitewash
  5. (dialectal) to whitewash
  6. (food)
    1. food made from starch or flour (noodles, vermicelli, etc.)
      /   ―  fěntiáo  ―  Chinese vermicelli
      /   ―  liángfěn  ―  grass jelly
        ―  fěn  ―  he fen noodles
    2. bean or sweet potato noodles
Usage notes[edit]
  • and (miàn):
    As cereal food, generally is something made from rice while is from wheat. But this is not a strict distinction. The two characters are usually NOT interchangeable when referring to a specific kind of noodles.
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Short for 粉絲粉丝 (fěnsī), from English fans.

Definitions[edit]

  1. fan; fanatic
  2. (Internet, neologism, slang) follower on a social media; subscriber
  3. (transitive) to be a fan of (a person, a group, etc.); to admire

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. powder

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
kun’yomi

⟨ko1 → */kwo//ko/

From Old Japanese.[1] Used phonetically to spell ko in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (ko

  1. [from 759] powder
  2. [from 759] flour
Usage notes[edit]

This reading remains in compounds and in certain set phrases. Use as a standalone noun began disappearing from the late 1600s in preference for the bisyllabic, and less ambiguous, kona reading.[1]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
こな
Grade: 5
kun’yomi

Appears to be (ko, powder, see above) +‎ (-na, suffixing element, meaning unclear).[5]

First cited to 1683.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(こな) (kona

  1. [from 1683] powder
  2. [from 1683] flour
Usage notes[edit]

This reading began to replace the monosyllabic ko reading from the late 1600s, likely due to sound shifts and the resulting ambiguity of monosyllabic words. Compare also ancient (a) and modern (ashi), ancient (ha) and modern (hane).[1]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 6, poem 997), text here
  3. 3.0 3.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC pɨunX). Recorded as Middle Korean 분〮 (Yale: pwún) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (powder; etc.):
  • (in 분홍 (粉紅, bunhong)):
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [puːn]
    • Phonetic hangeul: [ː]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 가루 (garu bun))

  1. Hanja form? of (powder).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(phấn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.