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See also: , , and 𠁣𠃛
U+9580, 門
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9580

[U+957F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9581]
U+2FA8, ⾨
KANGXI RADICAL GATE

[U+2FA7]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FA9]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes
Stroke order
門-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 169, +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 日弓 (AN), four-corner 77777, composition𠁣𠃛)

  1. Kangxi radical #169, .
  2. Shuowen Jiezi radical №438

Derived characters[edit]

Related characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1329, character 53
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41208
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1833, character 38
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4281, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9580

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𨳇
𮤫
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
門-bronze-shang.svg 門-oracle.svg 門-bronze.svg 門-silk.svg 門-slip.svg 門-seal.svg 門-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形): a gate. Compare (OC *ɡʷaːʔ, “(one) door”), which is half of this character.

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-muːr (mouth; lip; to hold in mouth; to chew; face; gills) (STEDT). Cognate with Tibetan མུར་བ (mur ba, to masticate), Tibetan མུར་འགྲམ (mur 'gram, jawbone; cheek), Mizo hmûi (lips; upper lip) and (OC *mɯnʔ, “lips; corner of the lips”).

“-gate”
Semantic loan from English -gate, which is a back-formation from Watergate. Also influenced by Japanese 羅生門.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • mn̂g/mûi - vernacular;
  • bûn - literary.
Note: meng5 - Chaoyang.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (55)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/muən/
Pan
Wuyun
/muon/
Shao
Rongfen
/muən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mwən/
Li
Rong
/muən/
Wang
Li
/muən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/muən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mun4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
mén
Middle
Chinese
‹ mwon ›
Old
Chinese
/*mˁə[r]/
English gate, door

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8960
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯːn/
門/门


Definitions[edit]

  1. gate; door; entrance; opening; portal (Classifier: m;  m c)
  2. valve; switch
  3. way of doing something; knack
    /   ―  mén  ―  way of doing something
  4. family
  5. school; sect; school of thought; tradition
    /   ―  mén  ―  Buddhism
    /   ―  ménshēng  ―  disciple of a particular tradition
  6. class; category
  7. (taxonomy) phylum; division
  8. (logic, electronics) logic gate
  9. Classifier for lessons, subjects, branches of technology, and languages.all nouns using this classifier
  10. Classifier for livelihoods, trades, skills, businesses, etc.
    生意不好 / 生意不好  ―  Zhè mén shēngyì bùhǎo zuò.  ―  It's a tough business.
  11. Classifier for thoughts, ideas, or emotions, particularly those forming a system or complex.
    心思 [MSC, trad.]
    心思 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ zhè yī mén xīnsī, shéi cāidé dào? [Pinyin]
    Who could have guessed all that in your mind?
  12. Classifier for marriage, romantic, or family relations.
    親事 / 亲事  ―  shuō chéng yī mén qīnshì  ―  to successfully make a match
  13. Classifier for large guns.
  14. -gate (a suffix combined with keywords to form the names of scandals)
  15. A surname​.

Synonyms[edit]

  • (large gun classifier): (zūn)

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (もん) (mon)
  • Korean: (, mun)
  • Vietnamese: môn ()

Others:

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Ryakuji for . Compare derived ryakuji for and , and simplified Chinese .

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (ryakuji) [U+95E8]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
もん
Grade: 2
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC muən).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(もん) (mon

  1. a gate
  2. (religion) a sect, school of thought
  3. (biology) a phylum, division
  4. Short for 門限 (mongen): a curfew
Derived terms[edit]

Counter[edit]

(もん) (-mon

  1. counter for cannons or large guns

Affix[edit]

(もん) (mon

  1. doorway, exit and entrance
  2. clan, family, kin
  3. teaching institution
  4. set of academic doctrines
  5. Used in Sanskrit transliterations
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かど
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨kado1 → */kadʷo//kado/

From Old Japanese.

The final -do is cognate with (to, door). Compare (kago, basket), which is cognate with (ko).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(かど) (kado

  1. a gate, portal
  2. an entrance, gateway, opening
  3. a clan, family, kin
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(かど) (Kado

  1. a surname

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
2
[noun] door; a plate placed on doorway
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC muən).

Historical readings

Pronunciation[edit]

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (mun mun))

  1. Hanja form? of (gate; door; gateway; portal).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

The final -do is cognate with (to1, door).

Noun[edit]

(kado1) (kana かど)

  1. a gate, portal
  2. an entrance, gateway, opening
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Japanese: (kado)

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

(kadu) (kana かづ)

  1. (regional, Central Eastern Old Japanese) Same as カド (kado1) above
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4386)
      和加加都乃以都母等夜奈枳以都母以都母於母加古比須須奈理麻之都都母
      waga katu no2 itumoto2 yanagi2 itu mo itu mo omo ka ko1pi1susu narimasitutu mo
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: môn, món, mon

  1. subject, discipline
  2. (only in compounds) band, gang, clique

Zhuang[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. Sawndip form of mwngz