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U+5E1D, 帝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5E1D

[U+5E1C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5E1E]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 50, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 卜月中月 (YBLB), four-corner 00227, composition ⿱⿳)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 330, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8865
  • Dae Jaweon: page 636, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 738, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5E1D

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Ancient script Small seal script
帝-bronze-shang.svg 帝-oracle.svg 帝-bronze.svg 帝-bronze-spring.svg 帝-bronze-warring.svg 帝-silk.svg 帝-ancient.svg 帝-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形). Possible interpretations:

  • The sepal of a flower; original form of (OC *teːds, “stem; peduncle”).
  • Tied-up firewood; original form of (OC *deːɡs).
  • An altar; original form of (OC *deːɡs).

The character was later borrowed for “God of Heaven”, which was later used as a title for emperors. Shuowen erroneously interprets the character to be a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *teːɡs): semantic (up; above) + phonetic (OC *sʰeɡs).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *teɣ (God); compare Tibetan [script needed] (the, celestial gods of the Bon religion), Jingpho [Term?] (mə³¹-tai³³, god of the sky), Proto-Bodo-Garo *mɯ-Dai⁴ (spirit; god) (Coblin, 1986; Schuessler, 2007; Sagart, 2011). Cognate with (OC *deːɡs, “a kind of sacrifice”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Alternatively, Sagart (1999) derives it from a root *tek (to be master over; to rule over), whence also (OC *ᵃtek, “to rule; to control”), (OC *ᵃtek, “son of principal wife”).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (39)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/teiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/teiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɛiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛjH/
Li
Rong
/teiH/
Wang
Li
/tieiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tieiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tejH ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁek-s/
English God

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2313
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*teːɡs/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. God of Heaven
  2. emperor; sovereign
  3. Short for 帝國主義帝国主义 (dìguózhǔyì, “imperialism”).
    鬥爭 / 斗争  ―  fǎn dòuzhēng  ―  anti-imperialism struggle

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. sovereign

Readings[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

(みかど) (mikado

  1. mikado (emperor of Japan)
  2. emperor

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC teiH). Recorded as Middle Korean 뎨〯 (Yale: tyey) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 임금 (imgeum je))

  1. Hanja form? of (emperor).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đế, đấy, đê, để, đí, đó)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.