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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
都-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that there are two Unicode z-variants, with code points U+90FD and U+FA26 (the latter is a compatibility variant and should be avoided).

Han character[edit]

(radical 163 +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十日弓中 (JANL), four-corner 47627, composition)

References[edit]


Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *taː): phonetic  ‎(OC *tjaːʔ) + semantic  ‎(town, city) – a large city.

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (5)
Final: (23)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: dū
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuo/ /tuo/ /to/ /tɔ/ /to/ /tu/ /tuo/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ tu › /*tˤa/ capital city

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
16968 0 /*taː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. metropolis; large city
  2. capital; capital city
  3. to make a place the capital city; to establish a capital
  4. graceful; elegant
  5. A surname​. Du

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (5)
Final: (23)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: dū
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuo/ /tuo/ /to/ /tɔ/ /to/ /tu/ /tuo/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ tu › /*tˤa/ capital city

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
16968 0 /*taː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. all, both
    知道  ―  dōu zhīdào le.  ―  I know everything. [ambiguous; may also mean “Even I know”.]
  2. (emphasis) even
    任何  ―  Tā bǐ rènhé rén dōu hǎo.  ―  He is even better than anyone else.
  3. (emphasis) Used in the ……都…… structure; interchangeable with (); even
    畜生不如自己父母養活 [MSC, trad.]
    畜生不如自己父母养活 [MSC, simp.]
    lián xùshēng dōu bùrú, lián zìjǐ de fùmǔ dōu bù yǎnghuó. [Pinyin]
    He is no better than an animal, because he doesn't even support his own parents.
  4. already
    /   ―  Dōu sì diǎn le.  ―  It is already 4 o'clock.
    這麼 / 这么  ―  Dōu zhème wǎn le ma?  ―  Is it that late already?
  5. (Cantonese) as well, also, too
    [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  Ngo5 dou1 hou2 hou2. [Jyutping]  ―  I'm fine too.
Synonyms[edit]
Dialectal synonyms of ("also, too")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Mandarin Beijing
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Hakka Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Min Nan Xiamen
Usage notes[edit]
  • When negating , the placement of () is important.
不都: not all, not everyone.
都不: none, no one

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji to)

  1. capital (city)
  2. city
  3. the prefecture of Tokyo

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(do) (hangeul , revised do, McCune-Reischauer to, Yale to)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(đô, đo, đu, đua, đủ)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.