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U+90FD, 都
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-90FD

[U+90FC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+90FE]

U+FA26, 都
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA26

[U+FA25]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA27]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order

Alternative forms[edit]

Note that there are two Unicode z-variants, with code points U+90FD and U+FA26 (the latter is a compatibility variant and contains an extra dot below in ).

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 163, +8 in Chinese, 邑+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十日弓中 (JANL), four-corner 47627, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1274, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39497
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1773, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3776, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+90FD

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𨜞
𨛷

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *taː) : phonetic (OC *tjaːʔ) + semantic (town, city).

Etymology 1[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (5)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter tu
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/tuo/
Pan
Wuyun
/tuo/
Shao
Rongfen
/to/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɔ/
Li
Rong
/to/
Wang
Li
/tu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tuo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dou1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ tu ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁa/
English capital city

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 16968
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taː/

Definitions[edit]

  1. metropolis; large city
      ―  shì  ―  metropolis; major city
  2. capital; capital city
      ―  chéng  ―  capital
  3. (literary) to make a place the capital city; to establish a capital
  4. (obsolete) graceful; elegant
  5. a surname. Du
Synonyms[edit]
  • (metropolis):

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (to)
  • Korean: 도(都) (do)
  • Vietnamese: đô ()

Etymology 2[edit]

Colloquial form of (OC *tja, “all”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note: dū - only used in certain fossilized expressions, e.g. 大都.
Note: du1 - "also" in some overseas and Hong Kong speakers.
Note: du2 - “also”.

Definitions[edit]

  1. all; both (used to indicate that the statement is true for every subject or object); or the entirety of something
    知道  ―  dōu zhīdào le.  ―  I know everything. [ambiguous; may also mean “Even I know”.]
    任何 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Tā bǐ rènhé rén dōu hǎo. [Pinyin]
    He is better than anyone else.
    這裡認識 [MSC, trad.]
    这里认识 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèlǐ de rén wǒ dōu rènshí. [Pinyin]
    I know everyone here.
    現在超市什麼 [MSC, trad.]
    现在超市什么 [MSC, simp.]
    Xiànzài zài chāoshì shénme dōu mǎi de dào. [Pinyin]
    These days everything can be bought from a supermarket.
    什麼電影 [MSC, trad.]
    什么电影 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā shénme diànyǐng dōu bù kàn. [Pinyin]
    He doesn't watch any movies.
    羨慕哪裡睡得著 [MSC, trad.]
    羡慕哪里睡得着 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ zhēn xiànmù tā, zài nǎlǐ dōu néng shuìdezháo. [Pinyin]
    I really envy him; he can sleep wherever he is.
      ―  dōu  ―  generally
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    ceoi1 dou3 sing4 coeng4 dou1 hai6 [Jyutping]
    blown by the wind until it has covered the entire wall
  2. (emphasis on subject) even
    知道怎麼知道 [MSC, trad.]
    知道怎么知道 [MSC, simp.]
    dōu bù zhīdào, nǐ shì zěnme zhīdào de? [Pinyin]
    How come you know it when even I don't know?
  3. (emphasis on object) even, interchangeable with ()
    身上沒有 [MSC, trad.]
    身上没有 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ shēnshàng yī fēn qián dōu méiyǒu. [Pinyin]
    I don't even have a single cent.
    電話一個 [MSC, trad.]
    电话一个 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ gěi tā dǎ le sì ge diànhuà, tā yīge dōu méi jiē. [Pinyin]
    I called her four times, but she answered none of them.
    1. (emphasis) Used in the ……都…… structure; interchangeable with (); even
      畜生不如自己父母養活 [MSC, trad.]
      畜生不如自己父母养活 [MSC, simp.]
      lián chùsheng dōu bùrú, lián zìjǐ de fùmǔ dōu bù yǎnghuo. [Pinyin]
      He is no better than an animal, because he doesn't even support his own parents.
  4. already
      ―  Dōu sì diǎn le.  ―  It is already 4 o'clock.
    這麼这么  ―  Dōu zhème wǎn le ma?  ―  Is it that late already?
  5. (Cantonese) as well; also; too
    [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 dou1 hou2 hou2. [Jyutping]  ―  I'm fine too.
  6. (Cantonese) still; anyways; nevertheless
Usage notes[edit]
  • When negating , the placement of () is important.
不都: not all, not everyone.
都不: none, no one
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to pout; to pucker up; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]


&#xFA26;
or
+&#xFE00;?
都󠄀
+&#xE0100;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
都󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
みやこ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
(kyūjitai)

京都
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

⟨mi1yako1 → */mʲijakʷo//mijako/

From Old Japanese, a compound of (みや) (miya, imperial palace) + () (ko, place).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(みやこ) (miyako

  1. (archaic) the place of residence of the emperor
  2. (by extension) a capital city
  3. (by extension) a capital (most important city in the field specified)
  4. (shogi, colloquial) Short for 都詰め (miyakozume): moving the 王将 (ōshō)/玉将 (gyokushō, king) to the center of the board with other pieces close together
Derived terms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(みやこ) (Miyako

  1. a placename
  2. a surname
  3. a female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
kan’on
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC tu).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (to

  1. a capital city
  2. a city, metropolis
  3. Short for 東京都 (Tōkyō-to): the capital prefecture of Tokyo
Derived terms[edit]

Affix[edit]

() (to

  1. city, metropolis
  2. capital city
  3. elegant, graceful, refined
  4. gather, command

Counter[edit]

() (-to

  1. counter for metropolis prefectures

Usage notes[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 3
goon
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC tu).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely an earlier borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Affix[edit]

() (tsu

  1. all, both, everyone, whole
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015–2024
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 도읍 (do'eup do))

  1. Hanja form? of (capital city).
  2. Hanja form? of (all, the whole).
  3. Hanja form? of (elegant, refined).

Compounds[edit]

Okinawan[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Old Japanese[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally a compound of (mi1ya, palace) and an uncertain (ko1) referring to a place.

  • The ko is possibly (ko2, affix indicating location), according to most dictionaries. However, poems in the Man'yōshū attest overwhelming phonetic usage of ⟨ko1 instead of ⟨ko2. There has likely been a vowel assimilation; it accounts for a form of this affix (ku, place) (e.g. いづく (iduku, where)) (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?).
  • Alternatively, the ko might be from (-ko1, diminutive suffix), as some Man'yōshū poems use the 宮子 reading.

Noun[edit]

(mi1yako1) (kana みやこ)

  1. the place of residence of the emperor, especially a temporary lodging in which the emperor stays during an imperial visit
  2. (by extension) a capital city

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: (miyako)

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: đô

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.