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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
故-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 66 +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十口人大 (JROK), four-corner 48640, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 469, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13161
  • Dae Jaweon: page 820, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1453, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6545

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
故-bronze.svg 故-silk.svg 故-bigseal.svg 故-seal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːs): phonetic  ‎(OC *kaːʔ) + semantic .

Etymology[edit]

Derivative of (OC *kaːʔ, “old”). The sense “cause, reason” may be related too (“thing or person of former times”), or the same word as (OC *kaːs, “solid, secure, sure”) (Schuessler 2007, apud Pulleyblank 1989).

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/koH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔH/
Li
Rong
/koH/
Wang
Li
/kuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuH › ‹ kuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˤa(ʔ)-s/ /*kˤaʔ-s/
English fact; reason old (not new)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4228
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. old; of the past
  2. cause; reason
    /   ―  yuán  ―  reason
  3. accident; misfortune; unexpected event
  4. past things; antiquity
  5. old friend; good friend; close friend
  6. to die; to pass away
      ―    ―  deceased [lit. has passed away]
  7. deceased; dead
  8. formerly; originally
  9. intentionally; deliberately
  10. still; as before
  11. therefore; so
    我思我在  ―  wǒ sī wǒ zài  ―  I think, therefore I am

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. late (deceased)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(go) (hangeul , revised go, McCune-Reischauer ko, Yale ko)

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Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(cố, cớ)

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