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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
為-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 86 +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 戈大弓火 (IKNF), four-corner 20227)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 669, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18981
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2198, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+70BA

Chinese[edit]

trad. /
simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script
為-oracle.svg 為-bronze.svg 為-bigseal.svg

Simplified from (). In the oracle bone script, it is an Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(hand) +  ‎(elephant) — a hand holding an animal (an elephant or a monkey). The later became (“hand; claw”). Shuowen Jiezi explained the character to be a representation of the female macaque.

Etymology[edit]

The two pronunciations below ("to make; to do; to be", "for; to; because") are cognate; the latter is the *-s derivative of the former. Words meaning "to make, to do" often have secondary meanings of "for, as" – compare .

Etymology not certain. Starostin compared this word with Tibetan བགྱིད་པ ‎(bgyid pa, to make, to manufacture), བགྱི་བ ‎(bgyi ba, action, deed), ཡིན ‎(yin, is, be) and Burmese ဝေ ‎(we, to distribute, to share). Schuessler listed *ʔaayh ‎(to give) (> Khmer ឲ្យ ‎(to give, to donate)) and Khmer ធ្វើ ‎(thveu, to do, to make), although the vowels do not match.

The graphic representation using monkey or elephant probably stems a homophonic or near-homophonic etymon which was rarely attested; compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *b/g-woj-n > Jingpho woi ‎(monkey) and possibly (OC *ɢʷan, “ape”). Outside Sino-Tibetan, compare Proto-Vietic *-vɔːj ‎(elephant) > Vietnamese voi ‎(elephant).

Pronunciation 1[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (14)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠiuᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦjwiə̆/
Li
Rong
/ɣjue/
Wang
Li
/ɣǐwe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/wie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wéi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wéi
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwe ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷ(r)aj/
English make, do, act as

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷal/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to do, to make
  2. (to turn, to transform) into, to
  3. to be (equivalent to, equal to)
  4. to take something as
  5. to act as; to serve as; to behave as
  6. as (in the capacity of)

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]



Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wèi
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjweH ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷ(r)aj-s/
English for, because

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷals/

Definitions[edit]

  1. for; to
  2. because of
    生氣 / 生气  ―  wèi zhè shēngqì ò.  ―  So that's what you're upset about?
  3. for the sake of
    五斗米折腰 / 五斗米折腰  ―  wèi wǔ dǒu mǐ zhéyāo  ―  don't bow down for the sake of five pecks (or decalitres) of rice

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(common “Jōyō” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ため, romaji tame)

  1. benefit
  2. sake; reason

Usage notes[edit]

The kana writing is preferred over the kanji spelling.

Verb[edit]

‎(irregular conjugation, hiragana , romaji su)

  1. to do

Derived terms[edit]

Compounds[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(wi) (hangeul ) (wi; hangul: )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(vi, vị)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.