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U+624B, 手
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-624B

[U+624A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+624C]
🈐 U+1F210, 🈐
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-624B
[unassigned: U+1F203–U+1F20F]
🈂
[U+1F202]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈑
[U+1F211]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
手-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical)

Han character[edit]

(radical 64, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 手 (Q), four-corner 20500)

  1. Kangxi radical #64, ⼿.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 416, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 11768
  • Dae Jaweon: page 762, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1824, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+624B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠂿

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
手-bronze.svg 手-silk.svg 手-slip.svg 手-ancient.svg 手-seal.svg 手-bigseal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – hand and fingers. The top stroke is the bent over middle finger, while the horizontal strokes are each two fingers. Compare , , .

Note that unlike the other hand/claw characters, has consistently had five fingers: a mammalian/human hand, as opposed to the three digits often found in the others.

Compare also (“foot”), derived from a footprint, originally composed of 3 toes and a sole.

Etymology[edit]

STEDT compares this word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-(t)sjəw-k/ŋ (wing; hand) based on Karlgren's Archaic Chinese (Old Chinese) reconstruction *śi̯ôg, connecting it to Tibetan གཤོག (gshog, wing).

However, this comparison is not supported by more recent scholarship, in which the Old Chinese is reconstructed with an alveolar nasal (Unger, 1995; Zhengzhang, 1995; Baxter and Sagart, 2014). Evidence for the nasal initial is given in Sagart (1999):

  • (“handcuffs”) can be written as , so (OC *ᵇhnruʔ) (with a nasal initial) and seem to be interchangeable as phonetics.
  • The ancient graph resembles the graph of (“right hand”). (OC *ᵇnruʔ, “animal track; claw”) seems to be the modern specialized form of , which has been borrowed to represent an earthly branch.

As done by Sagart (1999), Baxter and Sagart (2014) put (OC *n̥<r>uʔ, “handcuffs”) and (OC *Cə.n<r>uʔ, “animal track; claw”) into the same word family as (OC *n̥uʔ). Zhengzhang (1995) suggests a connection to Burmese ညှိုး (hnyui:, forefinger), which STEDT derives from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-njuŋ ~ *s-m-juŋ ~ *s-m-juw (finger).

Alternatively, Schuessler (2007) suggests a tone B endoactive derivation from (OC *nhiu?, “to take; to gather”), literally “that which is doing the taking”.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhiú - vernacular;
  • siú - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕɨuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕiəuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕuwX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭəuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯ə̯uX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shǒu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shǒu
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syuwX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*n̥uʔ/
    English hand

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11665
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hnjɯwʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. hand (Classifier: m c mn;  m mn;  c)
    2. expert; master
        ―  gāoshǒu  ―  master
    3. -ist; -er
        ―  shǒu  ―  singer
    4. convenient; handy; portable
      /   ―  shǒu  ―  mobile phone
      /   ―  shǒu  ―  handbook
    5. handwritten
    6. Classifier for skills.
    7. Classifier for transactions.
    8. (Min Nan) luck in gambling

    See also[edit]

    • 手掌 (shǒuzhǎng, “palm”)
    • 手指 (shǒuzhǐ, “finger”)
    • 手腕 (shǒuwàn, “wrist”)
    • 胳膊 (gēbo, “arm”)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (しゅ) (shu)
    • Korean: (, su)
    • Vietnamese: thủ ()

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly derived from a fusion of unbound apophonic form (ta) +‎ (i, emphatic nominal particle). Compare (ma → me, eye).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (te

    1. a hand
      リンゴ()()
      ringo o te ni motsu
      to hold an apple in one's hand
      ()()モールス
      te-uchi no Mōrusu
      manually-keyed Morse code
    2. a handle, grip
    3. a paw, foreleg
    4. a way of doing something, means
      その()あったか。
      Sono te ga atta ka.
      You could do it that way too?
      ()のも(ひと)()である。
      Kau no mo hitotsu no te de aru.
      Another thing you could do is buy it.
    5. (board games) a move, play
      • 2002 March 9, Hotta, Yumi; Obata, Takeshi, “(だい)131(ひゃくさんじゅういち)(きょく) (ため)される()(すみ) [Game 131: Isumi’s Endeavor]”, in ヒカルの碁 [Hikaru’s Go], volume 16 (fiction), Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 54:
        まだそんな()(のこ)ってた——(とう)(りょう)(はや)すぎた
        Mada sonna te ga nokotteta—— Tōryō wa hayasugita
        There’s still that move — I gave up too soon
    Derived terms[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    () (-te

    1. one who does something: -ist, -er
      (かた)()
      katarite
      narrator
      使(つか)()
      tsukaite
      user
    2. (board games) counter for moves in shogi, go, etc.
    Derived terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Prefix[edit]

    () (-te

    1. strengthens the prefixed adjective or adjectival noun

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しゅ
    Grade: 1
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕɨuX)

    Affix[edit]

    (しゅ) (shu

    1. hand
    2. handwork
    3. handicraft, skill, talent
    4. one who does something: -ist, -er
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɕɨuX). Recorded as Middle Korean 슈〮 (Yale: syu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (son su))

    1. Hanja form? of (hand).
    2. Hanja form? of (suffix related to one's skill or occupation).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Kunigami[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てぃー, romaji thī)

    1. a hand

    Miyako[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てぃー, romaji )

    1. a hand

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Cognate with Japanese (te).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てぃー, rōmaji )

    1. a hand
    2. a handle, grip
    3. a skill, ability, means; especially in martial arts

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ ティー” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: thủ ((thư)(cửu)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: thủ[1][3][4][5]

    1. Hán tự form of thủ (hand).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]


    Yaeyama[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てぃー, romaji )

    1. a hand

    Yonaguni[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana てぃー, romaji )

    1. a hand