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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai TA.png
U+305F, た
HIRAGANA LETTER TA

[U+305E]
Hiragana
[U+3060]
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Stroke order
4 strokes

Japanese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable[edit]

(romaji ta)

  1. The hiragana syllable (ta). Its equivalent in katakana is (ta). It is the sixteenth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō a-dan, row ta, section a).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From たる (taru), the 連体形 (rentaikei, adnominal form) of the classical auxiliary たり (tari).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (da) (when following -b, -g, -m, and -n base verbs)

Suffix[edit]

(rōmaji -ta) (jodōshi)

  1. Indicates a past or completed action.
    •  () (のう) (しゅっ) (ちょう)から (かえ)ってき
      kinō shutchō kara kaette kita
      I returned from my business trip yesterday.
    •  (げん)稿 (こう)をやっと ()
      genkō o yatto kaita yo
      I have finally finished my manuscript.
    •  (そう) () ()わったら、ごみを ()しに ()きなさい
      sōji ga owattara, gomi o dashi ni iki nasai
      Once you have finished cleaning, go dispose of the trash.
    • あの人はもう起きたろう 渡辺淳一, 『化粧』
      I wonder if he has woken up.
  2. Indicates the realization of a situation that has not realized.
    •  (はなし) () () (てん) (かんが)えよう
      hanashi ga deta jiten de kangaeyō
      Let's talk about it later when that question actually comes up.
    •  (こん) () ()ったとき (はな)すよ
      kondo atta toki hanasu yo
      I will tell you when we meet next time.
  3. (modifying a noun) Indicates the resulting state of an action.
    Synonyms: てある (-te aru), ている (-te iru)
    •  ()ガラス (まど)から (かぜ) () ()
      wareta garasu mado kara kaze ga fukikomu
      The wind keeps blowing in through the broken glass window.
  4. (at the end of a sentence)
    1. Indicates speaker's declaration, confirmation, or sudden realization.
      • あれ、 (きみ)はそこにいた
        are, kimi wa soko ni ita no
        Oh, there are you.
      •  (ぼう)やは今年 (ことし)いくつだった
        bōya wa kotoshi ikutsu datta
        How old are you, boy?
      • もうやめ
        mō yameta
        I have had enough. (lit. I have decided to give up this.)
      • よし、その (しな) ()
        yoshi, sono shina katta
        Well, I decided to buy this.
    2. Makes a light command.
      • さあ、どんどん (ある)いた (ある)いた
        sā, dondon aruita, aruita
        Go. Go. Don't stop.
Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • This suffix follows the 音便 (onbin, euphonic changes) forms of certain verb classes, some of which cause the suffix (-ta) to be voiced as (-da).
  • In traditional Japanese grammar, this is a 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) with the defective paradigm たろ (taro), --, (ta), (ta), たら (tara), --. The 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) たろ (taro) is used to derive the past conjectural suffix たろう (-tarō), which is now old-fashioned and taken over by だろう (darō) following the past form. The 仮定形 (kateikei, hypothetical stem) たら (-tara-) used to further take the conditional particle (-ba), but now usually stands on its own to form the conditional.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Short form of たれ (tare).

Pronoun[edit]

(rōmaji ta)

  1. (archaic) interrogative personal pronoun; who
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      あの書をきし文を讀み聞かせけれど、「なにせむにか命もおしからむ。が為にか。何事も用もなし」とて[...]