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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai TA.png
U+305F, た
HIRAGANA LETTER TA

[U+305E]
Hiragana
[U+3060]
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Stroke order
4 strokes

Japanese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.

Syllable[edit]

(romaji ta)

  1. The hiragana syllable (ta). Its equivalent in katakana is (ta). It is the sixteenth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō a-dan, row ta, section a).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Short form of たれ (tare).

Pronoun[edit]

(rōmaji ta)

  1. interrogative personal pronoun; who
    • c. late 9th – mid-10th century, Taketori Monogatari
      あの書をきし文を讀み聞かせけれど、「なにせむにか命もおしからむ。が為にか。何事も用もなし」とて[...]

Etymology 3[edit]

From たる (taru), the 連体形 (rentaikei, adnominal form) of the classical auxiliary たり (tari).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (da) (when following -b, -g, -m, and -n base verbs)

Suffix[edit]

(rōmaji -ta) (jodōshi)

  1. Indicates a past or completed action.
  2. Indicates the realization of a situation that has not realized.
  3. (modifying a noun) Indicates the resulting state of an action.
    Synonyms: てある (-te aru), ている (-te iru)
  4. (at the end of a sentence)
    1. Indicates speaker's declaration, confirmation, or sudden realization.
    2. Makes a light command.

Usage notes[edit]

  • This suffix follows the 音便 (onbin, euphonic changes) forms of certain verb classes, some of which cause the suffix (-ta) to be voiced as (-da).
  • In traditional Japanese grammar, this is a 助動詞 (jodōshi, auxiliary verb) with the defective paradigm たろ (taro), --, (ta), (ta), たら (tara), --. The 未然形 (mizenkei, irrealis or incomplete form) たろ (taro) is used to derive the past conjectural suffix たろう (-tarō), which is now old-fashioned and taken over by だろう (darō) following the past form. The 仮定形 (kateikei, hypothetical stem) たら (-tara-) used to further take the conditional particle (-ba), but now usually stands on its own to form the conditional.

References[edit]