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U+305F, た

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Stroke order
4 strokes


Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.




  1. The hiragana syllable (ta). Its equivalent in katakana is (ta). It is the sixteenth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ta-gyō a-dan, row ta, section a).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From たる (taru), the 連体形 (rentaikei, adnominal form) of the classical auxiliary verb たり (tari), in turn a contraction of てあり (te ari), from (te, conjunctive form of classical completion auxiliary (tsu)) + あり (ari).[1]

Doublet of てある (-te aru).

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (-da, when used on -bu, -gu, -mu, and -nu godan verbs)



  1. indicates a past or completed action
    Kinō shutchō kara kaette kita
    I returned from my business trip yesterday.
    Genkō o yatto kaita yo
    I have finally finished my manuscript.
    Sōji ga owattara, gomi o dashi ni iki nasai
    Once you have finished cleaning, go dispose of the trash.
  2. indicates the realization of a situation that has not realized
    Hanashi ga deta jiten de kangaeyō
    Let's talk about it later when that question actually comes up.
    Kondo atta toki hanasu yo
    I will tell you when we meet next time.
  3. indicates the resulting state of an action
    Wareta garasu mado kara kaze ga fukikomu
    The wind keeps blowing in through the broken glass window.
  4. at the end of a sentence:
    1. indicates speaker's declaration, confirmation, or sudden realization
      Are, kimi wa soko ni ita no
      Oh, there you are.
      Bōya wa kotoshi ikutsu datta
      How old are you, boy?
      Mō yameta
      I have had enough.
      (literally, “I have decided to give up.”)
      Yoshi, sono shina katta
      Alright, I've decided to buy it.
      Ato wa tanonda zo.
      I leave the rest to you.
    2. makes a light command
      Sā, dondon aruita, aruita
      Go. Go. Don't stop.
      Doita, doita.
      Move out of the way, please.
Usage notes[edit]

This suffix follows the 音便 (onbin, euphonic changes) forms of certain part of speech classes, some of which cause the suffix (-ta) to be voiced as (-da):


See also[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
[pronoun] (obsolete, persists in some fossilized expressions) interrogative personal pronoun: who, whom
(This term, , is the hiragana spelling of the above term.)
For a list of all kanji read as , see Category:Japanese kanji read as た.)

Etymology 4[edit]

/to wa//ta/



  1. Contraction of とは (to wa): This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
See also[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

/(-t̚) wa//(-t͡ɕɨ) wa//(-t͡sʉ) wa//(-t̚)ta/

Appears in noh and kyogen texts.

Contraction of any Sino-Japanese-derived term ending in a -t̚ 入声 (nisshō, entering tone) (-chi) or (-tsu) + particle (wa).



  1. (rare) Synonym of (wa):
Derived terms[edit]


  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Alternative spelling

From Proto-Japonic *ta.[1]



  1. interrogative personal pronoun: who
    • 711712, Kojiki (poem 94)
      mi1-mo2ro2 ni tuku ya tamakaki1 tuki1amasi ta ni ka mo2 yo2ramu kami2 no2 mi1yapi1to2
      At Mimoro, / Built is a fine fence; / To leave behind; / Who should be approached? / Gods of the palace.
Derived terms[edit]
  • Japanese: (ta)

Etymology 2[edit]

Alternative spelling

Very likely from Proto-Japonic *ta; compare *tamay (whence Old Japanese (tame2) and Okinawan (tami)).



  1. a sake, reason
    • 749, Shoku Nihongi (Tenpyō-shōhō 1, first day of the fourth lunar month)
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 808), text here
      tatu no2 ma wo are pa motome2mu awoni yosi Nara no2 mi1yako1 ni ko2mu pi1to2 no2 ta ni
      I would like to find a dragon horse for a person who will come to the capital of Nara where green earth is good.[2]
Usage notes[edit]
  • Takes either the particle (ni) or (no2).
Related terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)



  1. prefixed to a verb, adjective, or adverb to indicate an adjusting tone
    • 720, Nihon Shoki (poem 40)
      Apadi-sima iya putanarabi Aduki1-sima iya putanarabi yo2ro2siki1 simasima ta ka ta-sarearatisi Ki1bi2 naru imo wo api1mi1turu mono2
      Thou Island of Ahaji / With thy double ranges; / Thou Island of Adzuki / With thy double ranges / Ye good islands / Ye have seen face to face / My spouse of Kibi. [2]


  1. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2010) Koreo-Japonica: A Re-Evaluation of a Common Genetic Origin[1], University of Hawai’i Press, →ISBN, →JSTOR, page 67
  2. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2011) Man’yōshū (Book 5) - A New Translation Containing the Original Text, Kana Transliteration, Romanization, Glossing and Commentary, →ISBN, →ISBN