ます

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

Japanese[edit]

Broom icon.svg A user suggests that this Japanese entry be cleaned up.
Please see the discussion on Requests for cleanup(+) for more information and remove this template after the problem has been dealt with.

Etymology 1[edit]

The -ます ending is generally believed to have come from the Old Japanese auxiliary verb mawirasuru (mairasuru: to humbly do something for a superior), with idiomatic use arising from the causative conjugation of 参る (mairu, to come or go to the place of a social superior, humble verb).[1][2]

mawirasurumairasurumarasurumassurumasurumasu

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ma̠sɨ̥ᵝ]
  • The pitch accent depends on the suffixed verb.

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ます (rōmaji -masu)

  1. expresses politeness toward and distance from the listener: vaguely similar to the social context indicated by the usted verb conjugation in Spanish, the vous conjugation in French, or the Sie conjugation in German
Conjugation[edit]

Other forms not attested.

Usage notes[edit]

Connects to the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of a verb and inflects partially like type-1 verbs. The imperative forms are only used with honorific verbs, e.g. いらっしゃいませ (irasshaimase), なさいませ (nasaimase), 下さいませ (kudasaimase). The perfective has an irregular negative form ませんでした (masen deshita); the hypothetical conditional is rare. The old dictionary form まする (masuru) is still sometimes used. When there is a choice, attaches last: e.g. polite passive is 話されます (hanasaremasu), not 話しまされる (*hanashimasareru).

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The reading of various kanji.

Pronunciation 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ます (rōmaji masu)

  1. : trout
  2. , , , : a traditional Japanese cup (unit of measurement)
Verb[edit]

ます (rōmaji masu)

  1. 増す, 益す: to increase in amount or degree

Pronunciation 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

ます (rōmaji masu)

  1. : trout
  2. , , , : a traditional Japanese cup (unit of measurement)
  3. : (architecture) the capital of a wooden pillar

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9