ます

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

mawirasurumairasurumarasurumassurumasurumasu

The -ます ending is generally believed to have come from the Old Japanese auxiliary verb まゐらする (mawirasuru, to humbly do something for a superior), with idiomatic use arising from the causative conjugation of 参る (mairu, to come or go to the place of a social superior, humble verb; ancient reading mawiru).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • In Tokyo speech, the accent falls somewhere in the suffix, regardless of the accent type of the suffixed verb:[3]
    • If the suffix is in the form ます (-masu) or ました (-mashita, past/perfective form), the accent of the verb construction falls on the first mora of the suffix.
    • If the suffix is in the form ましょう (-mashō, volitional/conjectural form) or ません (-masen, negative form), the accent of the verb construction falls on the second mora of the suffix.
  • There are a few exceptions like 恐れ入る: れいる [òsóꜜrèìrù] (Nakadaka) → れいります [òsóꜜrèìrìmàsù] (Nakadaka).

Alternative forms[edit]

Suffix[edit]

ます (-masu

  1. expresses politeness toward and distance from the listener: vaguely similar to the social context indicated by the usted verb conjugation in Spanish, the vous conjugation in French, or the Sie conjugation in German
Conjugation[edit]

Other forms not attested.

Usage notes[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The kana spelling of several native words.

Definitions[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of ます – see the following entries.
J
[noun] trout, sea trout: more specifically, fish belonging to genera of the family Salmonidae: Salmo, Oncorhynchus, Coregonus, or Salvelinus
Alternative spelling
マス
H
[noun] masu (square wooden box)
[noun] cell of a grid
Alternative spellings
, , , マス
増す
[verb] to increase
[verb] (of water) to rise
Alternative spelling
益す
(This term, ます, is an alternative spelling of the above terms.
For a list of all kanji read as ます, not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as ます.)

(The following entry is uncreated: .)

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Online Japanese Accent Dictionary (OJAD)