五段活用

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
on’yomi goon kan’on
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Etymology[edit]

Compound of 五段 (godan, quintigrade, five-grade) +‎ 活用 (katsuyō, conjugation).

Literally, 五段 (godan, five grades) refers to how the inflected endings are located in the gojūon table. It means five vowels are involved, since each (dan, row) of the table contains one vowel. Thus, this can be understood as "five-voweled conjugation".

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Tokyo) だんかつよー [gòdáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [4])[1]
  • IPA(key): [ɡo̞dã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

Noun[edit]

()(だん)(かつ)(よう) (godan katsuyōごだんくわつよう (godan kwatuyou)?

  1. (grammar) a verbal conjugation class consisting of five alternating bases: -a, -i, -u, -e, and -o
    An extension of the earlier 四段活用 (yodan katsuyō, quadrigrade conjugation) class.
    The fifth base, -o, is a pseudo-base derived from the suffix (-u) attaching to the irrealis conjugation stem that ends in -a, resulting in あう (-au), which phonologically regularly elides into [oː].
未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
仮定形
Conditional
命令形
Imperative
書く (kak-, to write) 書か (kaka)
書こ (kako-)
書き (kaki)
書い (kai-)
書く (kaku) 書く (kaku) 書け (kake) 書け (kake)
立つ (tat-, to stand) 立た (tata)
立と (tato-)
立ち (tachi)
立っ (ta'-)
立つ (tatsu) 立つ (tatsu) 立て (tate) 立て (tate)
読む (yom-, to read) 読ま (yoma)
読も (yomo-)
読み (yomi)
読ん (yon-)
読む (yomu) 読む (yomu) 読め (yome) 読め (yome)

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN