下一段活用

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
しも
Grade: 1
いち
Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
kun’yomi goon kan’on
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Etymology[edit]

Compound of (shimo, lower) +‎ 一段活用 (ichidan katsuyō, monograde conjugation).

Literally, 下一段 (shimo ichidan) refers to how the inflected endings are located in the gojūon table. (shimo) means the vowel e, which is written beneath the vowel i, the other inflection-related vowel. 一段 (ichidan, one grade) means only one vowel is involved, since each (dan, row) of the table contains one vowel. Thus, this can be understood as "one-voweled conjugation in e".

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Tokyo) もいちだんかつよー [shìmó íchídáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [7])[1]
  • IPA(key): [ɕimo̞ it͡ɕidã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

Noun[edit]

下一段活用(しもいちだんかつよう) (shimo ichidan katsuyō (historical kana しもいちだんくわつよう)

  1. (grammar) a verbal conjugation class in which the stem ends in -e:
Modern 未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
仮定形
Conditional
命令形
Imperative
受ける (uk-, to receive) 受け (uke) 受け (uke) 受ける (ukeru) 受ける (ukeru) 受けれ (ukere) 受けよ (ukeyo)
受けろ (ukero)
出る (d-, to leave) (de) (de) 出る (deru) 出る (deru) 出れ (dere) 出よ (deyo)
出ろ (dero)
食べる (tab-, to eat) 食べ (tabe) 食べ (tabe) 食べる (taberu) 食べる (taberu) 食べれ (tabere) 食べよ (tabeyo)
食べろ (tabero)
Archaic 未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
已然形
Realis
命令形
Imperative
蹴る (k-, to kick) (ke) (ke) 蹴る (keru) 蹴る (keru) 蹴れ (kere) 蹴よ (keyo)

Usage notes[edit]

  • The only archaic verb of this class, 蹴る (keru, to kick), was integrated into the 五段活用 (godan katsuyō, quadrigrade conjugation) class after around the mid-Edo period.

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN