下一段活用

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Japanese[edit]

Kanji in this term
しも
Grade: 1
いち
Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
yutōyomi

Etymology[edit]

A compound of 下一段 ‎(shimo ichidan, lower monograde) and 活用 ‎(katsuyō, conjugation). All earlier lower bigrade verbs turn into lower monograde. Lower refers to the -e stem and contrasts with the upper -i. Monograde refers to the one-way -e, contrasting with the two-way e/u variation in bigrades.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Yutōyomi
  • (Tokyo) もいちだんかつよう [shìmó íchídáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka - [7])[1]
  • IPA(key): [ɕimo̞ it͡ɕidã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɯᵝjo̞ː]

Noun[edit]

下一段活用 ‎(hiragana しもいちだんかつよう, romaji shimo ichidan katsuyō, historical hiragana しもいちだんくわつよう)

  1. (grammar) lower monograde conjugation; a verbal conjugation class in which the stem ends in -e and has the following inflections: -/-/ru/ru/re/ro. Examples:
Irrealis Adverbial Conclusive Attributive Realis Imperative
uke- "to receive" uke- uke- uke-ru uke-ru uke-re uke-ro
nige- "to flee" nige- nige- nige-ru nige-ru nige-re nige-ro
tabe- "to eat" tabe- tabe- tabe-ru tabe-ru tabe-re tabe-ro

See also[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9