Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: and

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
下-order.gif
Stroke order
下-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

下-oracle.svg 下-bronze.svg 下-bigseal.svg 下-seal.svg
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

下 in its shell and bone form is an ideogram (指事) that shows the concept of down by showing one line below another (contrast ). The shell and bone form evolved into 下, the character used today. (See earlier forms here.)

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一卜 (MY), four-corner 10230)

  1. under, underneath, below
  2. down
  3. inferior
  4. bring down

Antonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (also means “down” in some uses)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14
  • Dae Jaweon: page 147, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 7, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E0B

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (下), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 麻
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 胡雅切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɣaX/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaX/ /ɦɯaX/ /ɦaɨX/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaX/
Character (下), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 麻
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 胡駕切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɣaH/ /ɣaH/ /ɣaH/ /ɦɯaH/ /ɦaɨH/ /ɣaH/ /ɣaH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xià ‹ X › /*ɡˤraʔ/ down
xià ‹ H › /*m-ɡˤraʔ-s/ descend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13445 0 /*ɡraːʔ/
13446 0 /*ɡraːs/

Verb[edit]

  1. to go down
      ―  xiàchuán  ―  to disembark from a boat
    /   ―  xiàlóu  ―  to go downstairs
      ―  xiàshān  ―  to go down the mountain
      ―  zǒuxià  ―  to walk down
  2. to get out of
      ―  xiàchuáng  ―  to get out of bed
  3. to fall down
      ―  luòxià  ―  to fall down
      ―  xiàxuě  ―  to snow
      ―  xiàyǔ  ―  to rain
  4. to issue
      ―  xiàlìng  ―  to issue an order
  5. to put in
    麵條 / 面条  ―  xiàmiàntiáo  ―  to put noodles into boiling water
  6. to give
  7. to begin
    /   ―  xiàbǐ  ―  to start writing
  8. to finish
      ―  xiàbān  ―  to get off work
    /   ―  xiàkè  ―  to finish class
  9. to give birth (as an animal)
    豬仔 / 猪仔  ―  xiàzhūzǎi  ―  to have piglets
  10. to lay
      ―  xiàdàn  ―  to lay eggs
  11. (colloquial) to download
    軟件 [MSC, trad.]
    软件 [MSC, simp.]
    Xiān qù xià ge ruǎnjiàn. [Pinyin]
    Download the software first.
  12. used after a verb to express height
  13. used after a verb to express space
  14. used after a verb to express the separation of an object
  15. used after a verb to express the end of an action

Adjective[edit]

  1. low
    /   ―  xiàcéng  ―  lower level
  2. inferior
      ―  xiàpǐn  ―  inferior products
  3. next
      ―  xiàcì  ―  next time

Postposition[edit]

  1. under
    /   ―  shùxià  ―  under the tree
    這些條件 / 这些条件  ―  zài zhèxiē tiáojiàn xià  ―  under these conditions
  2. down
    /   ―  lóuxià  ―  downstairs
  3. with
    朋友幫助 / 朋友帮助  ―  zài péngyou de bāngzhù xià  ―  with help from friends

Classifier[edit]

  1. used when counting time

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana した, romaji shita)

  1. the below

Noun[edit]

(hiragana しも, romaji shimo)

  1. lower portion, end

Noun[edit]

(hiragana もと, romaji moto)

  1. lower portion; base
  2. under the influence of

Suffix[edit]

(hiragana , romaji -ka)

  1. under a situation

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji ge)

  1. the last volume in a two- or three-volume set

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ha)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: ha, McCune-Reischauer: ha)
  • Name (hangeul): 아래 (revised: alae, McCune-Reischauer: arae)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạ)

  1. Below
  2. To go below, under, or to fall
        下山: to go down a mountain
  1. To sent:
        下令: to command, to sent an order
  1. Strip off:
        下枪: to strip off one's weapon
  1. To decide:
        下藥: to give prescription