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See also: and
U+4E0B, 下
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0B

[U+4E0A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
下-order.gif
Stroke order
3 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一卜 (MY), four-corner 10230, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14
  • Dae Jaweon: page 147, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 7, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E0B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠄟

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
下-oracle.svg 下-bronze.svg ACC-b00156.svg ACC-b00158.svg 下-silk.svg 下-slip.svg 下-ancient.svg 下-seal.svg 下-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡraːʔ
*ɡraːʔ, *ɡraːs
*ɡraːs, *ɡaːʔ

in its shell and bone form is an ideogram (指事) that shows the concept of down by showing one line below another (contrast ). The shell and bone form evolved into , the character used today.

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • ha4 - vernacular;
  • xia4 - literary.
  • (Dungan)
    (Note: Dungan pronunciation is currently experimental and may be inaccurate.)
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hā/hǎ/hēe - literary;
    • hē/hě/hēe/khē/khě, ē/ě/ēe, kē/kě/kēe (often replaced by ) - vernacular.
    Note:
    • hia6 - literary;
    • ê6 - vernacular;
    • ê7 - classifier;
    • gê6 - “low, short”;
    • hê6 - “to put in, to start”.
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3hho - vernacular;
    • 2xia - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 下 (底) 下 (降) 下 (等一子)
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/
    Harbin /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
    Tianjin /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/
    Jinan /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/
    Qingdao /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/
    Xi'an /xa⁴⁴/ ~頭 /ɕia⁴⁴/ /xa⁴⁴/
    Xining /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/
    Lanzhou /xa¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
    Ürümqi /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Wuhan /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/
    /xa³⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
    Guiyang /xa²¹³/
    /ɕia²¹³/
    /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
    Kunming /ɕia̠²¹²/ /ɕia̠²¹²/ /xa̠²¹²/
    Nanjing /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /xa⁴⁵/ /ɕia⁴⁵/ /xa⁴⁵/
    /ɕia⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/
    Hohhot /ɕiaʔ⁰/ /ɕia⁵⁵/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦo²³/
    /ɕia⁵³/
    /ɦo²³/
    /ɕia⁵³/
    /ɕiɪʔ⁵/ (歇)
    Suzhou /ɦo³¹/ /ɦo³¹/
    Hangzhou /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦo³⁵/ /ɦo²²/ /o⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /ɕia²²/
    /xa³⁵/
    /ɕia²²/
    /xa²²/
    /xa²²/
    Tunxi /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /xa¹¹/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
    /ɕia¹¹/
    /xa¹¹/
    Xiangtan /ɦɒ²¹/ /ɕiɒ²¹/ /ɦɒ²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /ha⁴⁴/ /ha³¹/ /ha⁵³/
    Taoyuan /hɑ²⁴/ /hɑ⁵⁵/ /hɑ⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha²³/
    Nanning /ha²⁴/ /ha²²/ /ha²²/
    Hong Kong /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ha²²/
    /ke²²/
    /ha²²/ /ha²²/
    /e²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɑ²⁴²/ /kiɑ²⁴²/ /hɑ²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tai²¹/ /a⁴²/ /xa⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /e³⁵/ /hia³⁵/ /e³¹/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ɛ³³/ /ɛ³³/ /ɛ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (33) (33)
    Final () (98) (98)
    Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠaX/ /ɦˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚaX/ /ɦᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨX/ /ɦaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xià xià
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xià xià
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X › ‹ H ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡˤraʔ/ /*m-ɡˤraʔ-s/
    English down descend

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 13445 13446
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡraːʔ/ /*ɡraːs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. lower part, low position; down
      Antonyms: (shàng)
    2. under
    3. low
    4. inferior, poor
      •   ―  xiàpǐn  ―  inferior products
    5. next
      •   ―  xià  ―  next time
    6. to go down; to get out of
      •   ―  xiàchuán  ―  to disembark from a boat
      • /   ―  xiàlóu  ―  to go downstairs
      •   ―  xiàshān  ―  to go down the mountain
      •   ―  zǒuxià  ―  to walk down
      •   ―  xiàchuáng  ―  to get out of bed
    7. to fall down; to rain or snow
      •   ―  luòxià  ―  to fall down
      •   ―  xiàxuě  ―  to snow
      •   ―  xià  ―  to rain
    8. to give; to issue
      •   ―  xiàlìng  ―  to issue an order
    9. to put in
      • 麵條 / 面条  ―  xià miàntiáo  ―  to put noodles into boiling water
    10. to begin, to start
    11. to finish, to complete
      •   ―  xiàbān  ―  to get off work
      • /   ―  xià  ―  to finish class
    12. to give birth (as an animal)
      • 豬仔 / 猪仔  ―  xià zhūzǐ  ―  to have piglets
    13. to lay (egg)
      •   ―  xiàdàn  ―  to lay eggs
    14. (colloquial) Short for 下載 (“to download”).
    15. (colloquial) Short for 下線 (“to log out”).
    16. with, under
    17. Used after a verb to express height.
    18. Used after a verb to express space.
    19. Used after a verb to express the separation of an object.
    20. Used after a verb to express the end of an action.
    21. Classifier for the number of actions.

    See also[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    した
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana した, rōmaji shita)

    1. the below

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しも
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しも, rōmaji shimo)

    1. lower portion, end

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    もと
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana もと, rōmaji moto)

    1. lower portion; base
    2. under the influence of

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Suffix[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji -ka)

    1. under a situation

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ge)

    1. the last volume in a two- or three-volume set

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (ha)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References[edit]


    Okinawan[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Attested in the 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”) as しちや.[1]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana しちゃ, romaji shicha)

    1. under

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1896: 沖縄語典 (Okinawa Goten, “Okinawan Dictionary”). In Japanese. http://kindai.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/992016/46

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (hạ)

    1. Below
    2. To go below, under, or to fall

    下山: to go down a mountain

    1. To sent:

    下令: to command, to sent an order

    1. Strip off:

    下枪: to strip off one's weapon

    1. To decide:

    下藥: to give prescription