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Character
Unicode name CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E0B
Code point U+4E0B
Entity number 下
Unicode block CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E0A] [U+4E0C]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
下-order.gif
Stroke order
下-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一卜 (MY), four-corner 10230, composition)

  1. under, underneath, below
  2. down
  3. inferior
  4. bring down

Antonyms[edit]

See also[edit]

  • (also means “down” in some uses)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 76, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14
  • Dae Jaweon: page 147, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 7, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E0B

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
下-oracle.svg 下-bronze.svg 下-bigseal.svg 下-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

下 in its shell and bone form is an ideogram (指事) that shows the concept of down by showing one line below another (contrast ). The shell and bone form evolved into 下, the character used today. (See earlier forms here.)

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 下 (底) 下 (降) 下 (等一子)
Mandarin Beijing /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/ /ɕia⁵¹/
Harbin /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
Tianjin /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/ /ɕiɑ⁵³/
Jinan /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/ /ɕia²¹/
Qingdao /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/ /ɕia⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/ /ɕia³¹²/
Xi'an /xa⁴⁴/ ~頭 /ɕia⁴⁴/ /xa⁴⁴/
Xining /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
Yinchuan /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/
Lanzhou /xa¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
Ürümqi /xa²¹³/ /ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
Wuhan /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/ /ɕia³⁵/
/xa³⁵/
Chengdu /ɕia¹³/ /ɕia¹³/ /xa¹³/
Guiyang /xa²¹³/
/ɕia²¹³/
/ɕia²¹³/ /xa²¹³/
Kunming /ɕia̠²¹²/ /ɕia̠²¹²/ /xa̠²¹²/
Nanjing /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/ /ɕiɑ⁴⁴/
Hefei /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/ /ɕia⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xa⁴⁵/ /ɕia⁴⁵/ /xa⁴⁵/
/ɕia⁴⁵/
Pingyao /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/ /xɑ³⁵/
Hohhot /ɕiaʔ⁰/ /ɕia⁵⁵/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɦo²³/
/ɕia⁵³/
/ɦo²³/
/ɕia⁵³/
/ɕiɪʔ⁵/ (歇)
Suzhou /ɦo³¹/ /ɦo³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/ /ɦiɑ¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦo³⁵/ /ɦo²²/ /o⁴²/
Hui Shexian /ɕia²²/
/xa³⁵/
/ɕia²²/
/xa²²/
/xa²²/
Tunxi /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ²⁴/ /xɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xa¹¹/ /ɕia⁵⁵/
/ɕia¹¹/
/xa¹¹/
Xiangtan /ɦɒ²¹/ /ɕiɒ²¹/ /ɦɒ²¹/
Gan Nanchang /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/ /hɑ²¹/
Hakka Meixian /ha⁴⁴/ /ha³¹/ /ha⁵³/
Taoyuan /hɑ²⁴/ /hɑ⁵⁵/ /hɑ⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha²³/
Nanning /ha²⁴/ /ha²²/ /ha²²/
Hong Kong /ha²²/ /ha²²/ /ha¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ha²²/
/ke²²/
/ha²²/ /ha²²/
/e²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɑ²⁴²/ /kiɑ²⁴²/ /hɑ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tai²¹/ /a⁴²/ /xa⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /e³⁵/ /hia³⁵/ /e³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ɛ³³/ /ɛ³³/ /ɛ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (33) (33)
Final () (98) (98)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɣaX/ /ɦɣaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦɯaX/ /ɦɯaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦaɨX/ /ɦaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Wang
Li
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣaX/ /ɣaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xià xià
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xià xià
Middle
Chinese
‹ X › ‹ H ›
Old
Chinese
/*ɡˤraʔ/ /*m-ɡˤraʔ-s/
English down descend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 13445 13446
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡraːʔ/ /*ɡraːs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. lower part, low position; down
    Antonyms: (shàng)
  2. under
  3. low
  4. inferior, poor
    •   ―  xiàpǐn  ―  inferior products
  5. next
    •   ―  xià  ―  next time
  6. to go down; to get out of
    •   ―  xiàchuán  ―  to disembark from a boat
    • /   ―  xiàlóu  ―  to go downstairs
    •   ―  xiàshān  ―  to go down the mountain
    •   ―  zǒuxià  ―  to walk down
    •   ―  xiàchuáng  ―  to get out of bed
  7. to fall down; to rain or snow
    •   ―  luòxià  ―  to fall down
    •   ―  xiàxuě  ―  to snow
    •   ―  xià  ―  to rain
  8. to give; to issue
    •   ―  xiàlìng  ―  to issue an order
  9. to put in
    • 麵條 / 面条  ―  xià miàntiáo  ―  to put noodles into boiling water
  10. to begin, to start
  11. to finish, to complete
    •   ―  xiàbān  ―  to get off work
    • /   ―  xià  ―  to finish class
  12. to give birth (as an animal)
    • 豬仔 / 猪仔  ―  xià zhūzǐ  ―  to have piglets
  13. to lay (egg)
    •   ―  xiàdàn  ―  to lay eggs
  14. (colloquial) Abbreviation of 下載 (“to download”).
  15. (colloquial) Abbreviation of 下線 (“to log out”).
  16. with, in
  17. Used after a verb to express height.
  18. Used after a verb to express space.
  19. Used after a verb to express the separation of an object.
  20. Used after a verb to express the end of an action.
  21. Classifier for the number of actions.

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
した
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana した, romaji shita)

  1. the below

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
しも
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana しも, romaji shimo)

  1. lower portion, end

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
もと
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana もと, romaji moto)

  1. lower portion; base
  2. under the influence of

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
on'yomi

Pronunciation[edit]

Suffix[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji -ka)

  1. under a situation

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji ge)

  1. the last volume in a two- or three-volume set

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ha)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: ha, McCune-Reischauer: ha)
  • Name (hangeul): 아래 (revised: alae, McCune-Reischauer: arae)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

References[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hạ)

  1. Below
  2. To go below, under, or to fall

下山: to go down a mountain

  1. To sent:

下令: to command, to sent an order

  1. Strip off:

下枪: to strip off one's weapon

  1. To decide:

下藥: to give prescription