- 1 English
- 1.1 Pronunciation
- 1.2 Etymology 1
- 1.3 Etymology 2
- 1.3.1 Adverb
- 1.3.2 Preposition
- 1.3.3 Adjective
- 1.3.4 Verb
- 1.3.5 Noun
- 1.3.6 Derived terms
- 1.3.7 References
- 1.4 Etymology 3
- 1.5 Statistics
- 2 Dutch
- 3 German
- 4 Welsh
From Middle English doun, from Old English dūn, from Proto-Germanic *dūnaz, *dūnǭ (“sandhill, dune”), probably borrowed from Proto-Celtic *dūnom (“hill; hillfort”) (compare Welsh din (“hill”), Irish dún (“hill, fort”)), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewh₂- (“to finish, come full circle”). Cognate with West Frisian dún (“dune, sandhill”), Dutch duin (“dune, sandhill”), German Düne (“dune”). More at town; akin to dune.
- (archaic except in place-names) Hill, rolling grassland
- Churchill Downs, Upson Downs (from Auntie Mame, by Patrick Dennis).
- (chiefly in the plural) Field, especially for racing.
- (Britain, chiefly in the plural) A tract of poor, sandy, undulating or hilly land near the sea, covered with fine turf which serves chiefly for the grazing of sheep.
- Seven thousand broad-tailed sheep grazed on his downs.
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.
- (comparable) From a higher position to a lower one; downwards.
- The cat jumped down from the table.
- (comparable) At a lower and/or further along or away place or position along a set path.
- His place is farther down the road.
- The company was well down the path to bankruptcy.
- 1906, Stanley J[ohn] Weyman, chapter I, in Chippinge Borough, New York, N.Y.: McClure, Phillips & Co., OCLC 580270828:
- South (as south is at the bottom of typical maps).
- I went down to Miami for a conference.
- (Ireland) Away from the city (even if the location is to the North).
- He went down to Cavan. down on the farm; down country
- Into a state of non-operation.
- The computer has been shut down. They closed the shop down. The up escalator is down.
- To a subordinate or less prestigious position or rank.
- Smith was sent down to the minors to work on his batting.
- After the incident, Kelly went down to Second Lieutenant.
- (rail transport) The direction leading away from the principal terminus, away from milepost zero.
- (sentence substitute, imperative) Get down.
- Down, boy! (such as to direct a dog to stand on four legs from two, or to sit from standing on four legs.)
- (Britain, academia) Away from Oxford or Cambridge.
- He's gone back down to Newcastle for Christmas.
- From a remoter or higher antiquity.
- From a greater to a less bulk, or from a thinner to a thicker consistence.
- to boil down in cookery, or in making decoctions
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Arbuthnot to this entry?)
- From less to greater detail.
2013 August 3, “Boundary problems”, in The Economist, volume 408, number 8847:
- Economics is a messy discipline: too fluid to be a science, too rigorous to be an art. Perhaps it is fitting that economists’ most-used metric, gross domestic product (GDP), is a tangle too. GDP measures the total value of output in an economic territory. Its apparent simplicity explains why it is scrutinised down to tenths of a percentage point every month.
- (intensifier) Used with verbs to add emphasis to the action of the verb.
- They tamped (down) the asphalt to get a better bond.
- Used with verbs to indicate that the action of the verb was carried to some state of completion, rather than being of indefinite duration.
- He boiled the mixture./He boiled down the mixture. He sat waiting./He sat down and waited.
- (in crosswords) An answer which reads vertically.
- Down can be used with verbs in ways that change the meaning of the verb in ways not entirely predictable from the meanings of the down and the verb, though related to them. See Category:English phrasal verbs with particle (down).
- (From a higher position to a lower one): up
- (At a lower place): up
- (Ireland: Away from the city): up
- (Into a state of non-operation): up
- (Rail transport: direction leading away from the principal terminus): up
- (in crosswords): across
- From the higher end to the lower of.
- The ball rolled down the hill.
- From one end to another of.
- The bus went down the street.
- They walked down the beach holding hands.
- (From the higher end to the lower): up
- (from the higher end to the lower): sell down the river
- Depressed, feeling low.
- So, things got you down? / Is Rodney Dangerfield giving you no respect? / Well, bunky, cheer up!
- On a lower level than before.
- The stock market is down.
- Prices are down.
- Having a lower score than an opponent.
- They are down by 3-0 with just 5 minutes to play.
- He was down by a bishop and a pawn after 15 moves.
- At 5-1 down, she produced a great comeback to win the set on a tiebreak.
- (baseball, colloquial, following the noun modified) Out.
- Two down and one to go in the bottom of the ninth.
- (colloquial) With "on", negative about, hostile to
- Ever since Nixon, I've been down on Republicans.
- (not comparable, US, slang) Comfortable with, accepting of.
- Are you down to hang out at the mall, Jamal?
- As long as you're down with helping me pick a phone, Jack.
- (not comparable) Inoperable; out of order; out of service.
- The system is down.
- Finished (of a task); defeated or dealt with (of an opponent or obstacle); elapsed (of time). Often coupled with to go (remaining).
- Two down and three to go. (Two tasks completed and three more still to be done.)
- Ten minutes down and nothing's happened yet.
- (not comparable, military, law enforcement, slang, of a person) Wounded and unable to move normally; killed.
- We have an officer down outside the suspect's house.
- There are three soldiers down and one walking wounded.
- (not comparable, military, aviation, slang, of an aircraft) Mechanically failed, collided, shot down, or otherwise suddenly unable to fly.
- We have a chopper down near the river.
- Thoroughly practiced, learned or memorised; mastered. (Compare down pat.)
- It's two weeks until opening night and our lines are still not down yet.
- 2013, P.J. Hoover, Solstice, (ISBN 0765334690), page 355:
- I stay with Chloe the longest. When she's not hanging out at the beach parties, she lives in a Japanese garden complete with an arched bridge spanning a pond filled with koi of varying sizes and shapes. Reeds shoot out of the water, rustling when the fish swim through them, and river-washed stones are sprinkled in a bed of sand. Chloe has this whole new Japanese thing down.
- (obsolete) Downright; absolute; positive.
- a down denial
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Beaumont and Fletcher to this entry?)
- (transitive) To drink or swallow, especially without stopping before the vessel containing the liquid is empty.
- He downed an ale and ordered another.
- (transitive) To cause to come down; to knock down or subdue.
- The storm downed several old trees along the highway.
- Sir Philip Sidney
- To down proud hearts.
- Madame D'Arblay
- I remember how you downed Beauclerk and Hamilton, the wits, once at our house.
- (transitive, pocket billiards) To put a ball in a pocket; to pot a ball.
- He downed two balls on the break.
- (transitive, American football) To bring a play to an end by touching the ball to the ground or while it is on the ground.
- He downed it at the seven-yard line.
- (transitive) To write off; to make fun of.
- (obsolete, intransitive) To go down; to descend.
- (Can we find and add a quotation of John Locke to this entry?)
- (drink): See also Wikisaurus:drink
down (plural downs)
- A negative aspect; a downer.
- I love almost everything about my job. The only down is that I can't take Saturdays off.
- (dated) A grudge (on someone).
- 1974, GB Edwards, The Book of Ebenezer Le Page, New York 2007, p. 10:
- She had a down on me. I don't know what for, I'm sure; because I never said a word.
- 1974, GB Edwards, The Book of Ebenezer Le Page, New York 2007, p. 10:
- An act of swallowing an entire drink at once.
- (American football) A single play, from the time the ball is snapped (the start) to the time the whistle is blown (the end) when the ball is down, or is downed.
- I bet after the third down, the kicker will replace the quarterback on the field.
- (crosswords) A clue whose solution runs vertically in the grid.
- I haven't solved 12 or 13 across, but I've got most of the downs.
- A downstairs room of a two-story house.
- She lives in a two-up two-down.
- Down payment.
- Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "Spatial particles of orientation", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8
- Soft, fluffy immature feathers which grow on young birds. Used as insulating material in duvets, sleeping bags and jackets.
- (botany) The pubescence of plants; the hairy crown or envelope of the seeds of certain plants, such as the thistle.
- The soft hair of the face when beginning to appear.
- The first down begins to shade his face.
- That which is made of down, as a bed or pillow; that which affords ease and repose, like a bed of down.
- When in the down I sink my head, / Sleep, Death's twin brother, times my breath.
- Thou bosom softness, down of all my cares!
- (transitive) To cover, ornament, line, or stuff with down.
- (Can we find and add a quotation of Young to this entry?)
down (not comparable)
|number & gender||singular||plural|
|predicative||er ist down||sie ist down||es ist down||sie sind down|
(with definite article)
|nominative||der downe||die downe||das downe||die downen|
|genitive||des downen||der downen||des downen||der downen|
|dative||dem downen||der downen||dem downen||den downen|
|accusative||den downen||die downe||das downe||die downen|
(with indefinite article)
|nominative||ein downer||eine downe||ein downes||(keine) downen|
|genitive||eines downen||einer downen||eines downen||(keiner) downen|
|dative||einem downen||einer downen||einem downen||(keinen) downen|
|accusative||einen downen||eine downe||ein downes||(keine) downen|
- down in Duden online
- dawn (colloquial first-person plural future)
- delwn (colloquial first-person singular conditional)
- deswn (colloquial first-person singular conditional)
- dethwn (colloquial first-person singular conditional)
- deuwn (literary; all forms)
- first-person plural present / future of
- first-person singular imperfect / conditional of
- (literary) first-person plural imperative of
|Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.