ab

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Translingual[edit]

Symbol[edit]

ab

  1. (international standards) ISO 639-1 language code for Abkhaz.

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /æb/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -æb

Etymology 1[edit]

Abs

Abbreviation of abdominal muscles.

Noun[edit]

ab (plural abs)

  1. (informal) abdominal muscle. [Mid 20th century.][1]
    • 2006, H. Peter Steeves, The Things Themselves, page 75:
      The bikinied models in most of the ESPN2 shows have abs. Many of the malnourished bikinied models in the commercials have visible rib cages. How did the two get conflated into a shared vision of beauty?
    • 2010, Bill Geiger, "6-pack Abs in 9 Weeks", Reps! 17:106
      When possible, do your ab workout on a day when you're not training a major muscle group [] .
Usage notes[edit]

Most often used attributively. Substantive use is more common in the plural form abs.

Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Abbreviation of abscess.

Noun[edit]

ab (plural abs)

  1. (slang) An abscess caused by injecting an illegal drug, usually heroin.
Translations[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviations.

Verb[edit]

ab (third-person singular simple present abs, present participle abbing, simple past and past participle abbed)

  1. (climbing, informal) To abseil.
    • 1998, Climbing (issues 178-180, page 22)
      I had a climbing rope in my pack, set up an abseil with it, and abbed down to him.
  2. Abbreviation of abort.

Noun[edit]

ab

  1. Abbreviation of abortion.

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. Abbreviation of about.

Adverb[edit]

ab

  1. Abbreviation of about.

Etymology 4[edit]

From the spelling books and the fact that it was the first of the letter combinations.[2]

Noun[edit]

ab (plural abs)

  1. (US) The early stages of; the beginning process; the start.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lesley Brown, editor-in-chief; William R. Trumble and Angus Stevenson, editors (2002), “ab”, in The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary on Historical Principles, 5th edition, Oxford; New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 2.
  2. ^ Mathews, Mitford M, ed. A Dictionary of Americanisms on Historical Principles. 1st. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956.

Anagrams[edit]


Aynu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Persian آب(āb).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Otto Ladstätter, Andreas Tietze, Die Abdal (Äynu) in Xinjiang (1994)

Azerbaijani[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Classical Persian آب(āb).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab (definite accusative abı, plural ablar)

  1. (Classical Azerbaijani) water
    Synonym: su

Declension[edit]

    Declension of ab
singular plural
nominative ab
ablar
definite accusative abı
abları
dative aba
ablara
locative abda
ablarda
ablative abdan
ablardan
definite genitive abın
abların
    Possessive forms of ab
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) abım ablarım
sənin (your) abın abların
onun (his/her/its) abı abları
bizim (our) abımız ablarımız
sizin (your) abınız ablarınız
onların (their) abı or abları abları
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) abımı ablarımı
sənin (your) abını ablarını
onun (his/her/its) abını ablarını
bizim (our) abımızı ablarımızı
sizin (your) abınızı ablarınızı
onların (their) abını or ablarını ablarını
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) abıma ablarıma
sənin (your) abına ablarına
onun (his/her/its) abına ablarına
bizim (our) abımıza ablarımıza
sizin (your) abınıza ablarınıza
onların (their) abına or ablarına ablarına
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) abımda ablarımda
sənin (your) abında ablarında
onun (his/her/its) abında ablarında
bizim (our) abımızda ablarımızda
sizin (your) abınızda ablarınızda
onların (their) abında or ablarında ablarında
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) abımdan ablarımdan
sənin (your) abından ablarından
onun (his/her/its) abından ablarından
bizim (our) abımızdan ablarımızdan
sizin (your) abınızdan ablarınızdan
onların (their) abından or ablarından ablarından
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) abımın ablarımın
sənin (your) abının ablarının
onun (his/her/its) abının ablarının
bizim (our) abımızın ablarımızın
sizin (your) abınızın ablarınızın
onların (their) abının or ablarının ablarının

Related terms[edit]


Blagar[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab

  1. fish

References[edit]

  • A. Schapper (citing Steinhauer), Elevation in the spatial deictic systems of Alor-Pantar languages, in The Alor-Pantar languages: History and Typology, edited by Marian Klamer
  • ASJP, citing L. C. Robinson and G. Holton, Internal classification of the Alor-Pantar language family using computational methods applied to the lexicon (2012)

Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ap/
  • (Before a voiced consonant or a vowel) IPA(key): /ab/
  • (Before a voiced consonant or a vowel in betacist dialects) IPA(key): /aβ/

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. Obsolete form of amb.

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin ab (of, from).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. ex (out of, sold from)
  2. from (with the origin in time)

Etymology 2[edit]

See abe (to ape, mimic).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ab

  1. imperative of abe

Further reading[edit]


East Central German[edit]

Particle[edit]

ab

  1. (Strehlen and Schömberg, Silesian) negative particle, do not

East Yugur[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Mongolic *ab-, compare Mongolian авах (avakh).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /abqʰə/, [aβqʰə]

Verb[edit]

ab

  1. to take
    Ci ghudal kelese bu cini arasini xuulj' abqu.
    If you tell a lie I will skin you [take your skin].

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Germany) IPA(key): /ap/, /ɑp/
  • (Switzerland, Austro-Bavarian) IPA(key): /ɑb̥/
  • Rhymes: -ap

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle High German abe, ab, from Old High German ab, from Proto-West Germanic *ab, from Proto-Germanic *ab.

Preposition[edit]

ab (+ dative)

  1. beginning at that time or location; from
    Ab heute verfügbar.
    Available from today.
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]
  • Norwegian Bokmål: ab

Etymology 2[edit]

From adverbial use of the preposition in verbs such as abschlagen, abgehen etc.

Adjective[edit]

ab (strong nominative masculine singular (nonstandard) abber, not comparable)

  1. (colloquial, predicative) off; not attached to anything anymore
    Der Arm ist ab.
    The arm is (hewn) off.
  2. (nonstandard, attributive) off; not attached to anything anymore
    Der abbe Arm ist verschwunden.
    The (hewn) off arm has disappeared.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The predicative use is common in colloquial German throughout the country.
  • The attributive forms are mostly used in Western and Northern Germany and are considerably less common than the predicative use. They used to be used mostly jocularly, but become gradually more frequent since they are much shorter than the appropriate full verb forms such as abgetrennt (disconnected, severed).
  • The inflected attributive forms retain the devoiced consonant. Hence, sometimes they are spelled with p, rather than b: appes Bein.
Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. from

Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin abbas (father), from Ancient Greek ἀββᾶς (abbâs), from Aramaic אַבָּא(’abbā, father).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab m (genitive singular aba, nominative plural abaí)

  1. (Christianity) abbot
    Coordinate terms: ban-ab, máthairab
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Contraction of the relative particle a and the prevocalic variant of the past/conditional copula particle b’.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

ab

  1. Alternative form of ba (used in relative clauses before a vowel sound).
    Fear maith ab ea é.
    He was a good man.
    buachaill ab áirde ná mo dheartháira boy (who was) taller than my brother
Related terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
ab n-ab hab t-ab
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]

  • "ab" in Foclóir Gaeilge–Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing “ab” in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing “ab” in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

K'iche'[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab

  1. hammock
  2. steam
  3. mist

References[edit]


Kein[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab

  1. fire

Further reading[edit]


Latin[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ā (not used before a vowel or h)
  • abs (archaic, exclusively used before the pronoun te)
  • af (archaic)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Italic *ap, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away) (whence English off, of and after). See also po-. Cognate with ᾰ̓πό (apó).

Pronunciation[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ab (+ ablative)

  1. (indicating ablation): from, away from, out of
  2. (indicating ablation): down from
  3. (indicating agency): (source of action or event) by, by means of
    Rex ab suis appellaturHe is saluted king by his men
    (Caesar, de Bello Gallico, VII, 4)
  4. (indicating instrumentality): (source of action or event) by, by means of, with
    • 106 BCE – 43 BCE, Cicero, Oration in favor of P. Sestius Pro P. Sestio Oratio.Ch. 42, sect. 92:
      Horum utro uti nolumus, altero est utendum. vim volumus exstingui, ius valeat necesse est, id est iudicia, quibus omne ius continetur; iudicia displicent aut nulla sunt, vis dominetur necesse est. hoc vident omnes: Milo et vidit et fecit, ut ius experiretur, vim depelleret. altero uti voluit, ut virtus audaciam vinceret; altero usus necessario est, ne virtus ab audacia vinceretur.
      ...so that virtue might not be overwhelmed by insolence.
  5. (indicating association): to, with
  6. (indicating location): at, on, in
  7. (time) after, since

Usage notes[edit]

Used in conjunction with passive verbs to mark the agent.

  • Liber ā discipulō aperītur.
    The book is opened by the student.

Descendants[edit]

  • French: à
  • Italian: a
  • Spanish: a
    • Norwegian Bokmål: a
  • Norwegian Bokmål: ab

References[edit]

  • ab”, in Charlton T[homas] Lewis; Charles [Lancaster] Short (1879) [] A New Latin Dictionary [], New York, N.Y.; Cincinnati, Ohio; Chicago, Ill.: American Book Company; Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • ab in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • a gentle ascent: collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (opp. leniter a summo declivis)
    • the east winds are blowing: venti ab ortu solis flant
    • the Rhone[TR2] is the frontier between the Helvetii and the Sequani: Rhodanus Sequanos ab Helvetiis dividit
    • to be far from town: longe, procul abesse ab urbe
    • to devote every spare moment to...; to work without intermission at a thing: nullum tempus intermittere, quin (also ab opere, or ad opus)
    • in the fifth year from the founding of the city: anno ab urbe condita quinto
    • to be always at a person's side: ab alicuius latere non discedere
    • to turn one's gaze away from an object: oculos deicere, removere ab aliqua re
    • to trace one's descent from some one: originem ab aliquo trahere, ducere
    • a native of England: ortus ab Anglis or oriundus ex Anglis
    • from one's entry into civil life: ab ineunte (prima) aetate (De Or. 1. 21. 97)
    • to begin with a thing: initium capere; incipere ab aliqua re
    • to start from small beginnings: ab exiguis initiis proficisci
    • the motive, cause, is to be found in..: causa repetenda est ab aliqua re (not quaerenda)
    • to originate in, arise from: ab aliqua re proficisci
    • to rescue from destruction: ab exitio, ab interitu aliquem vindicare
    • to gain a person's esteem, friendship: gratiam inire ab aliquoor apud aliquem
    • to look favourably upon; to support: propenso animo, studio esse or propensa voluntate esse in aliquem (opp. averso animo esse ab aliquo)
    • to gain one's point with any one: aliquid ab aliquo impetrare
    • to win golden opinions from every one: maximam ab omnibus laudem adipisci
    • to have a good or bad reputation, be spoken well, ill of: bene, male audire (ab aliquo)
    • to use up, make full use of one's spare time: otio abūti or otium ad suum usum transferre
    • to draw away some one's attention from a thing: alicuius animum ab aliqua re abducere
    • to hold the same views: idem sentire (opp. dissentire ab aliquo)
    • to apply to a person for advice: consilium petere ab aliquo
    • to rescue from oblivion: aliquid ab oblivione vindicare
    • to be quite uncivilised: ab omni cultu et humanitate longe abesse (B. G. 1. 1. 3)
    • to be educated by some one: litteras discere ab aliquo
    • to receive instruction from some one: institui or erudiri ab aliquo
    • to derive an argument from a thing: argumentum ducere, sumere ex aliqua re or petere ab aliqua re
    • to disagree with a person: dissentire, dissidere ab or cum aliquo
    • to go back to the remote ages: repetere ab ultima (extrema, prisca) antiquitate (vetustate), ab heroicis temporibus
    • to have no taste for the fine arts: abhorrere ab artibus (opp. delectari artibus)
    • to go a long way back (in narrative): longe, alte (longius, altius) repetere (either absolute or ab aliqua re)
    • no sound passed his lips: nulla vox est ab eo audita
    • to extract an answer from some one: responsum ab aliquo ferre, auferre
    • to translate from Plato: ab or de (not ex) Platone vertere, convertere, transferre
    • to form, derive a word from... (used of the man who first creates the word): vocabulum, verbum, nomen ducere ab, ex...
    • the word amicitia comes from amare: nomen amicitiae (or simply amicitia) dicitur ab amando
    • to be separated by a deadly hatred: capitali odio dissidere ab aliquo (De Am. 1. 2)
    • to prevent some one from growing angry, appease his anger: animum alicuius ab iracundia revocare
    • to revenge oneself on some one: ulcisci aliquem, poenas expetere ab aliquo
    • to revenge oneself on another for a thing or on some one's behalf: poenas alicuius or alicuius rei repetere ab aliquo
    • to protect any one from wrong: ab iniuria aliquem defendere
    • to neglect one's duty: ab officio discedere
    • to neglect one's duty: de, ab officio decedere
    • to let oneself be perverted from one's duty: ab officio abduci, avocari
    • to have an inclination for a thing: propensum, proclivem esse ad aliquid (opp. alienum, aversum esse, abhorrere ab aliqua re)
    • the principles which I have followed since I came to man's estate: meae vitae rationes ab ineunte aetate susceptae (Imp. Pomp. 1. 1.)
    • to summon some one from the dead: aliquem ab inferis or a mortuis evocare, excitare (passive ab inferis exsistere)
    • to ask for an oracular response: oraculum petere (ab aliquo)
    • from beginning to end: ab ovo usque ad mala (proverb.)
    • the conversation began with..: sermo ortus est ab aliqua re
    • something has been left as a legacy by some one: hereditate aliquid relictum est ab aliquo
    • I have received a legacy from a person: hereditas ad me or mihi venit ab aliquo (Verr. 2. 1. 10)
    • to lend, borrow money at interest: pecuniam fenori (fenore) alicui dare, accipere ab aliquo
    • to borrow money from some one: pecuniam mutuari or sumere mutuam ab aliquo
    • to demand an account, an audit of a matter: rationem alicuius rei reposcere aliquem or ab aliquo
    • to demand an account, an audit of a matter: rationem ab aliquo reptere de aliqua re (Cluent. 37. 104)
    • to gain some one's favour: gratiam inire apud aliquem, ab aliquo (cf. sect. V. 12)
    • to be on a person's side (not ab alicuius partibus): ab (cum) aliquo stare (Brut. 79. 273)
    • to hold different views in politics: ab aliquo in re publica dissentire
    • to deliver some one from slavery: ab aliquo servitutem or servitutis iugum depellere
    • to exact a penalty from some one: poenam petere, repetere ab aliquo
    • to exact a penalty from some one: poenas expetere ab aliquo
    • to lay down arms: ab armis discedere (Phil. 11. 33)
    • to demand satisfaction, restitution: res repetere (ab aliquo) (Off. 1. 11. 36)
    • to gain a victory over the enemy: victoriam reportare ab hoste
    • putting aside, except: cum discessi, -eris, -eritis ab
  • Latin Dictionary, Lewis and Short, 1879.
  • Lingua Latina, Hans H. Ørberg, 2005.

Latvian[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ab

  1. (archaic) or

Synonyms[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. (archaic) around

Synonyms[edit]


Livonian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

a'b

  1. (anatomy) shoulder
  2. help

Usage notes[edit]

LĒL also features a partitive plural form with -īdi as in the example abīdi nustõ "to shrug."

Declension[edit]


Middle Irish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish aub, from Proto-Celtic *abū.

Noun[edit]

ab f (genitive aba)

  1. river

Descendants[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Middle Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ab unchanged n-ab
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From German ab (from), from Middle High German ab, from Old High German ab (of), from Proto-Germanic *ab (away, away from), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away).

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. (economics) from; (i.e. delivered) for the seller's expense at a location and forwarded for the buyer's expense
    ab Frankfurtfrom Frankfurt
    ab varelagerfrom inventory
    ab fabrikkfrom factory
  2. (economics, obsolete) as of
    ab mai
    as of May
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ab (from, away from, on, in), from Proto-Italic *ab, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away).

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. Only used in ab ovo (ab ovo)

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviation of avbetaling (installment), verbal noun form of avbetale (to pay off), a compound of av +‎ betale, first part av (of, from, by, off), from Old Norse af (of, from, off, by), from Proto-Germanic *ab (away from), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epó (off, away) + second part betale (pay, purchase), from Middle Low German betalen (of, from, off, by), last part is the suffix -ing (-ing), from Old Norse -ingr m, -ingi m, -ing f, from Proto-Germanic *-ingō, *-ungō.

Noun[edit]

ab

  1. (colloquial) Abbreviation of avbetaling (installment).
    • 1974, Kari Bakke, Gråspurven, page 22:
      møbler og vaskemaskin på AB
      furniture and washing machine on installments
Derived terms[edit]
Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • “ab_1” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • “ab_2” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • “ab_3” in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • ab” in Store norske leksikon

Occitan[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin ab.

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. (Guardiol) with

References[edit]

  • Pei, Mario A. 1948. Ab and the survival of the Latin genitive in Old Italian. Italica 25. 104–106.

Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Reduced form of Latin apud.

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. (10th century) with

Synonyms[edit]

  • avoec (used throughout Old French into the Middle and modern French periods)

Old High German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *ab.

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. of

Descendants[edit]

  • German: ab
    • Norwegian Bokmål: ab

Old Occitan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Reduced form of Latin apud

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. with
    • circa 1000, unknown, Lo Poèma de Boecis:
      Non comprarias ab mil liuras d’argent.
      [That] you couldn't buy with a thousand pounds of silver.

Descendants[edit]


Pennsylvania German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare German ab, Dutch af, English off.

Preposition[edit]

ab

  1. off
  2. from
  3. away

Pumpokol[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab

  1. father

Romani[edit]

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Noun[edit]

ab m (plural ab)

  1. river

Scots[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Uncertain. Compare English hobble, Dutch hobbelen (to lurch), Danish happe (to stutter), Norwegian jabba (to stammer) and colloquial Swedish happla (to stutter).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab (plural abs)

  1. (Orkney) impediment, hindrance, objection

Verb[edit]

ab (third-person singular simple present abs, present participle abin, simple past abed, past participle abed)

  1. (Orkney) to hinder

References[edit]


Scottish Gaelic[edit]

Noun[edit]

ab m (genitive singular aba, plural abachan)

  1. Alternative form of aba

Sumerian[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ab

  1. Romanization of 𒀊 (ab)

Turkish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish آب(āb, water), from Persian آب(āb).

Noun[edit]

ab (definite accusative abı, plural ablar)

  1. (obsolete, poetic) water

References[edit]


Volapük[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from German aber (but).

Conjunction[edit]

ab

  1. but

Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From fab, soft mutation of mab (son).

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

ab

  1. A patronymic indicator; son of.

Usage notes[edit]

This form is found before vowels. Before a consonant, the form ap is used.

Antonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “ab”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies

Wolof[edit]

Article[edit]

ab

  1. a/an (singular indefinite article)

Usage notes[edit]

Precedes the noun.