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Bassa[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. water

References[edit]


Cogui[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. water

References[edit]

  • Grace Hensarli, The function of -ki 'switch' in Kogi

Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. genitive/dative/locative and instrumental singular of ona

Dakota[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. live, be alive

Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From a reanalysis of Old Irish aní (that which) as an ní (the thing).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

 m (genitive singular , nominative plural nithe)

  1. thing
    Synonym: rud
  2. object

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. which (referring back to a clause) (followed by a relative clause)
    • 1939, Peig Sayers, “Inghean an Cheannaidhe”, printed in Marie-Louise Sjoestedt, Description d’un parler irlandais de Kerry, Bibliothèque de l'École des Hautes Études 270. Paris: Librairie Honoré Champion, p. 194:
      Do bhíodar sé mhí gan fille, agus nuair a chonaic Máire an t-árthach ag teacht chun cuain, bhí sceitimíní ar a croidhe le lúthgháir agus le h-áthas, nárbh’ iongnadh.
      They were [away] six months without returning, and when Máire saw the vessel coming to port, her heart had raptures of gladness and joy, which was not surprising.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish nige.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

 f (genitive singular nite)

  1. verbal noun of nigh
  2. washing

Verb[edit]

  1. present subjunctive analytic of nigh

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Irish .

Particle[edit]

  1. not (preverbal particle)
    thuigim.I do not understand.
    dheachaigh mé ansin.I did not go there.
    bhfaighidh siad é.They will not find it.
  2. not (present copular form)
    críonnacht creagaireacht.Miserliness is not thrift.
    hionann iad.They are not the same.
    An gloine é? hea.Is it glass? No.
Usage notes[edit]

The preverbal particle triggers lenition of a following consonant. It is not used in the past tense except for some irregular verbs. It takes the dependent form of irregular verbs. The copular form triggers h-prothesis of a following vowel.

Related terms[edit]
  • cha (nonstandard)
  • níor (used in the past tense with regular and some irregular verbs, also the past/conditional copular form)

Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Irish do·gní.

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. (archaic, Ulster) present analytic independent of déan

Further reading[edit]


Lakota[edit]

Adjective[edit]

  1. alive

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

(Zhuyin ㄋㄧˊ)

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Navajo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

di- (oral) + -Ø- (3rd person subject prefix) + -Ø- (classifier)-ní (neuter imperfective stem of root -NIID, “to say”).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Verb[edit]

  1. he/she says
    Dooda, dishní!I say no!

Usage notes[edit]

This verb is frequently used for quoted speech. To introduce quoted speech, just add the prefix á- (thus) to any of the forms of the verb. This modifies the meaning to something like "to say as follows" or "to say thus":

Asdzą́ą́ ání, Beeʼeldííl Dahsinilgóó deekai, ní. — That woman says, “we are going to Albuquerque,” she says.

This is a neuter verb that uses only the imperfective mode. Other modes are suppleted by the active verb niih, reproduced below for convenience.

Conjugation[edit]

Paradigm: Neuter imperfective (Ø), with some irregularities.

NEUTER IMP singular duoplural plural
1st person dishní diiʼní dadiiʼní
2nd person diní dohní dadohní
3rd person daaní
4th person jiní dajiní
PERFECTIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person dííniid diiʼniid dadiiʼniid
2nd person dííníniid dooniid dadooniid
3rd person dííniid dadííniid
4th person jidííniid dazhdííniid
FUTURE singular duoplural plural
1st person dideeshniił didiiʼniił dadidiiʼniił
2nd person didííniił didoohniił dadidoohniił
3rd person didooniił dadidooniił
4th person dizhdooniił dazhdidooniił
ITERATIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person ńdíshʼniih ńdiiʼniih ńdadiiʼniih
2nd person ńdíʼniih ńdóhʼniih ńdadohʼniih
3rd person ńdíʼniih ńdadiʼniih
4th person nízhdíʼniih ńdazhdiʼniih
OPTATIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person dóshneʼ dooʼneʼ dadooʼneʼ
2nd person dóóneʼ doohneʼ dadoohneʼ́
3rd person dóneʼ dadóneʼ
4th person jidóneʼ dazhdóneʼ

See also[edit]


Old Irish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *nīs (compare Welsh ni), from Proto-Indo-European *ne h₁ésti (is not) (compare Sanskrit (na), Latin ne, Gothic 𐌽𐌹 (ni)).

Particle[edit]

  1. not
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 24a38
      epur a n-anman sund.
      I do not say their names here.
    Synonym: nícon
Usage notes[edit]

Followed by the dependent form of the verb, which (in Old Irish) is not subjected to nasalization or lenition mutation unless a direct object pronoun is implied. Compare:

  • Ní ben inna firuHe does not strike the men
    Here the b of ben is unmutated.
  • Ní mbenHe does not strike him
    Here the b of ben is nasalized to mb.
  • Ní benHe does not strike it
    Here the b of ben is lenited.

In Middle Irish increasingly, and in Modern Irish always, lenites the following verb.

Descendants[edit]
  • Irish:

Verb[edit]

  1. is not, isn’t
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 12c29
      ar formut frib-si as·biur-sa inso.
      It is not because of envy towards you that I say this.
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 20c25
      Níta chumme-se friusom.
      I am not like them.
Conjugation[edit]
Person Singular Plural
1 níta, nída nítan, nídan
2 níta, nída nítad, nídad
3 nítat, nídat
dir. rel. nád natat
ind. rel. nan(d), na(n)t
(i)ch
nandat

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

  1. something, anything
    • c. 875, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 102a15
      Itius anúas ⁊ dus·claid anís; air ní foircnea in fíni hithe neich di anúas, amal du·ngní int aís sechmaill as·mbeir-som .i. air is cuit adaill ad·n-ellat-sidi in fíni du thabairt neich doib dia thorud.
      They eat it from above and he roots it up from below; for it does not exterminate the vine to eat of anything of it from above, as do the passers-by whom he speaks of, i.e. for it is only a passing visit that they make [lit: ‘that they visit’] to the vine to take something for themselves of its fruit.
  2. (followed by di (of, from)) some (of)
    • c. 875, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 20d4
      Cía ru·bé cen diib, ní·rubai cenaib huli.
      Though he might be without some of them, he could not be without all of them.
Declension[edit]
Case Animate Neuter
Nominative nech
Accusative nech
Genitive neich
Dative neuch, neoch
Derived terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization

also nní after a proclitic

pronounced with /n(ʲ)-/

also nní after a proclitic
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.