ba

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English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Egyptian bꜣ,

G53Z1

Noun[edit]

ba (plural bas)

  1. (Egyptian mythology) A being's soul or personality, represented as a bird-headed figure, which survives after death but must be sustained with offerings of food.
    • 1983, Norman Mailer, Ancient Evenings:
      But the Ba, I remembered, could be seen as the mistress of your heart and might or might not decide to speak to you, just as the heart cannot always forgive.

Etymology 2[edit]

The sound is very commonly made by infants, and is interpreted by parents as a reference to themselves.

Noun[edit]

ba (plural bas) (not generally used in the plural)

  1. (colloquial and in direct address) Father, baba.

Etymology 3[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba (uncountable)

  1. (historical) A medieval football game played in parts of Scotland around Christmas and New Year.
    • 2011, Alistair Moffat, The Borders:
      The townsmen played ba often and clearly knew what they were doing.

Anagrams[edit]


Akan[edit]

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. (Fante) come

References[edit]

  • Rose-Juliet Anyanwu, Fundamentals of Phonetics, Phonology and Tonology (2008)

Anguthimri[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. (Mpakwithi) island

References[edit]

  • Terry Crowley, The Mpakwithi dialect of Anguthimri (1981), page 184

Bakung[edit]

ba

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. water (clear liquid H₂O)
  2. water (mineral water)

Bambara[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. mother
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. goat

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. river, stream, lake

Etymology 4[edit]

Numeral[edit]

  1. one thousand
Synonyms[edit]

Basque[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Particle[edit]

ba

  1. Alternative form of ba-
    Ba al zatoz?Are you coming?
    Ba ote al dago inor etxean?Is anyone home?
    Ba omen zegoen bidea ezagutzen zuen norbait.There was someone who knew the way.
Usage notes[edit]

See usage notes at ba-.

Etymology 2[edit]

Clipping of bada (it is)

Particle[edit]

ba

  1. so, then, well
    Ez nizun ba esan.Well, I didn't tell you.

Etymology 3[edit]

Clipping of bai (yes).

Particle[edit]

ba

  1. (Northern) yes

Etymology 4[edit]

Probably from Spanish bah.

Interjection[edit]

ba

  1. Indicates disdain or unbelief.

Further reading[edit]

  • ba” in Euskaltzaindiaren Hiztegia, euskaltzaindia.eus
  • ba” in Orotariko Euskal Hiztegia, euskaltzaindia.eus

Borôro[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. egg

Buhi'non Bikol[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *bahaq, from Proto-Austronesian *baSaq.

Noun[edit]

  1. flood

Cebuano[edit]

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • (General Cebuano) IPA(key): /ˈba/
  • Rhymes: -a

Particle[edit]

ba

  1. final interrogative particle

Pronunciation 2[edit]

  • (General Cebuano) IPA(key): /ˈbaː/
  • Rhymes: -a

Etymology[edit]

Short for baba.

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. to piggyback; to carry someone on the back

Chichewa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-jíba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

-ba (infinitive kubá)

  1. steal

Derived terms[edit]


Chickasaw[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ba

  1. Alternative spelling of ba'

Cimbrian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German , from Old High German wār, hwār, from Proto-West Germanic *hwār, from Proto-Germanic *hwar (where). Cognate with German wo, English where.

Pronoun[edit]

ba

  1. (Sette Comuni, relative) that; which; who
    dar faff ba de pridighetthe priest who preaches

Adverb[edit]

ba (dative bannont)

  1. (Sette Comuni, interrogative) where
    Ba pisto gabéest in gantzen tag?
    Where have you been all day?

Adverb[edit]

ba

  1. (Sette Comuni, attributive only) how (modifier used to express suprise, delight, etc.)
    Ba khalt!How cold!

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • “ba” in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Dagbani[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba (plural banima)

  1. father
  2. a title of respect
Usage notes[edit]
  • obligatorily possessed: includes father's brothers, and in the plural all relatives on the father's side, particularly those of his generation.

See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ba

  1. Third-person, animate, singular, neutral, object pronoun them

See also[edit]


Dama (Sierra Leone)[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Vai [script needed] (ba), Mende wa.

Adjective[edit]

ba

  1. big

References[edit]

  • Dalby, T. D. P. (1963), “The extinct language of Dama”, in Sierra Leone Language Review, volume 2, Freetown: Fourah Bay College, pages 50–54

Duun[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Onomatopoeic?

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. goat

Further reading[edit]


Eastern Penan[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. water

References[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ba/
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. (Egyptian mythology) ba

Fula[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Particle[edit]

ba

  1. question-forming interrogative particle (expressing doubt)

Garo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Probably from Bengali বা (ba), which is a short form of কিংবা (kiṅba).

Conjunction[edit]

ba

  1. or

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ba

  1. Romanization of 𐌱𐌰

Haitian Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. give

Synonyms[edit]


Hlai[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Hlai *hmaː (five), from Pre-Hlai *maː (Norquest, 2015).

Numeral[edit]

ba

  1. five

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Hlai *hmaː (dog; hunting dog), from Pre-Hlai *maː (Norquest, 2015). Compare Proto-Tai *ʰmaːᴬ (dog) (whence Thai หมา (mǎa)).

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. dog, hunting dog

Iriga Bicolano[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *bahaq, from Proto-Austronesian *baSaq.

Noun[edit]

  1. flood

Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba f pl

  1. plural of
    Tá na ba sa mhá.The cows are in the field.

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish ba.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (affirmative): b’ (used before a vowel sound except for the pronouns é, í, iad, ea)
  • (relative): ab (used before a vowel sound)
  • badh (archaic)
  • budh (superseded)
  • dob, dob' (dialectal equivalent of b’)

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

ba (triggers lenition)

  1. past/conditional affirmative of is
    Ba é Dónall an múinteoir.Dónall was the teacher.
    Ba mhaith liom cupán tae.I would like a cup of tea.
  2. past/conditional direct relative of is (used to introduce the comparative/superlative form of adjectives)
    fear ba shine ná m'athaira man (who was) older than my father
Related terms[edit]

Mutation[edit]

Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
ba bha mba
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ó Searcaigh, Séamus (1925), Foghraidheacht Ghaedhilge an Tuaiscirt, Belfast: Brún agus Ó Nualláin [Browne and Nolan], § 2.

Italian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈba/
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Hyphenation:

Interjection[edit]

ba

  1. bah!
  2. oh well!

Anagrams[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ba

  1. Rōmaji transcription of
  2. Rōmaji transcription of

Kriol[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ba

  1. Alternative form of blanga

Malagasy[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From English bar.

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. (music) bar; measure

Etymology 2[edit]

From French bas (stocking).

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. stockings; socks
  2. knitting

Mandarin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Romanization[edit]

ba (Zhuyin ˙ㄅㄚ)

  1. Pinyin transcription of
  2. Pinyin transcription of ,
  3. Pinyin transcription of 𣬶
  4. Pinyin transcription of 𣬷

ba

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Form of *bān, from (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.).

Verb[edit]

  1. Imperative form of of *bān (to kiss)

Miraya Bikol[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *bahaq, from Proto-Austronesian *baSaq.

Noun[edit]

  1. flood

Nias[edit]

Preposition[edit]

ba

  1. in, at, on (general preposition for locative adjuncts)

References[edit]

  • Sundermann, Heinrich. 1905. Niassisch-deutsches Wörterbuch. Moers: Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, p. 22–23.

Northern Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Iranian *HwáHatah (wind) (compare Avestan 𐬬𐬁𐬙𐬋(vātō), Pashto and Persian باد(bâd)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *HwáHatas (wind) (compare Sanskrit वात (vā́ta)), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂wéh₁n̥ts (blowing), present participle of *h₂weh₁- (to blow).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

Central Kurdish با(ba)
Zazaki vay

ba m (Arabic spelling با‎)

  1. weather
  2. wind

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. simple past of be

Old Irish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (2nd sg. pres. subj.): be

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. inflection of is:
    1. first/second/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. second-person singular imperative
    3. third-person singular preterite/imperfect indicative nonrelative/relative

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Conjunction[edit]

ba

  1. Alternative form of fa (or)

Phalura[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

ba (discourse, Perso-Arabic spelling بہ)

  1. Marker with a (switch-)topic function (variously corresponding to 'and, however, instead, as for, but')

References[edit]

  • Liljegren, Henrik; Haider, Naseem (2011) Palula Vocabulary (FLI Language and Culture Series; 7)‎[1], Islamabad, Pakistan: Forum for Language Initiatives, →ISBN

Phuthi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-báa.

Verb[edit]

-ba

  1. to be
  2. to become

Inflection[edit]

This entry needs an inflection-table template.


Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

ba

  1. nay, or rather, or should I say, moreover, hell used to say that what has been said thus far is true, but could be said more accurately
    Synonyms: mało tego, więcej
    To danie jest dobre, ba, przepyszne.This dish is good, nay, delicious!
  2. duh, obviously used when the speaker believes what has been said is obvious
    "On jest trochę głupi, co?" "Ba!""He's a little dumb, isn't he?" "Duh".

Derived terms[edit]

particle

Further reading[edit]

  • ba in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • ba in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romagnol[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Latin *babbus (dad), of Onomatopoeic origin.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba m (plural bëb)

  1. father, dad

References[edit]

  • Masotti, Adelmo (1999) Vocabolario Romagnolo Italiano (in Italian), Zanichelli, page 51
  • Ercolani, Libero (1971) Vocabolario Romagnolo-Italiano, Monte di Ravenna, page 33

Shona[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-jíba.

Verb[edit]

-bá (infinitive kubá)

  1. to steal

Sumerian[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ba

  1. Romanization of 𒁀 (ba)

Swazi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-báa.

Verb[edit]

-ba

  1. to be
  2. to become

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ba (not comparable)

  1. (colloquial) Apocopic form of bara, corresponds to ”was (just) like” or ”just”.
    Ja ba: ”Vafan är det!” o han ba: ”Ingen aning!”.
    I was (just) like: ”Wtf is that!” and he was (just) like ”No idea!”.
    Asså allt ba spåra' direkt.
    Y'know everything just went crazy the second it started.

Anagrams[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ba₅, or shortened form of baga. Cognate with Cebuano ba and Malagasy va.

Pronunciation[edit]

Particle[edit]

ba

  1. marks a sentence as interrogative
    Synonyms: (dialectal) ga, (dialectal) baga, (obsolete) kaya
    Mayroon ka bang pera?
    Do you have money?

Etymology 2[edit]

Shortened from of aba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ba

  1. used in expressing surprise or disgust

Etymology 3[edit]

Shortened from of bulaga.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

  1. boo (used in play-scare with babies)
    Synonym: ga

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter B.

Tiruray[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. (anatomy) mouth

Uneapa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Oceanic *bʷa, possibly from Proto-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian *ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. to not be
    Synonym: bali

Further reading[edit]

  • Terry Crowley et al, The Oceanic Languages (2013), page 374

Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of Chinese (father, SV: bả).

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. (chiefly Southern Vietnam) father
Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Vietnamese cardinal numbers
 <  2 3 4  > 
    Cardinal : ba
    Ordinal : thứ ba

From Proto-Vietic *paː, from Proto-Mon-Khmer *piʔ; cognate with Muong pa, Khmer បី (bəy), Halang pe, Pacoh pe, Mon ပိ (pi).

Numeral[edit]

ba (𠀧, )

  1. three

Adjective[edit]

ba (𠀧, )

  1. (Southern Vietnam, of a sibling) secondborn
    anh/chị basecond eldest brother/sister
    bác basecond eldest brother/sister of one's parent
    chú basecondborn younger brother of one's father
Derived terms[edit]
Derived terms

Determiner[edit]

ba

  1. (colloquial) some, an indefinite quantity greater than one
    Ba cái đó chả đáng quan tâm.
    There's no need to be concerned about those.

Volapük[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ba

  1. perhaps

West Albay Bikol[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *bahaq, from Proto-Austronesian *baSaq.

Noun[edit]

  1. flood

West Makian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. the vagina

References[edit]

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[2], Pacific linguistics

Xhosa[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-báa.

Verb[edit]

-ba

  1. to be
  2. to become

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.


Yapese[edit]

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. (auxiliary) to be (doing something); forms the present tense

Yola[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle English been, from Old English bēon, from Proto-West Germanic *beun.

Verb[edit]

ba (inflected forms yarth, is, was, wasth, war)

  1. be, been

References[edit]

  • Jacob Poole (1867), William Barnes, editor, A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, London: J. Russell Smith, page 24

Zoogocho Zapotec[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Cognate with Yatzachi Zapotec ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. hot weather (clarification of this definition is needed)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with Isthmus Zapotec baꞌ, Yatzachi Zapotec ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ba

  1. grave, tomb

Etymology 3[edit]

Cognate with Yatzachi Zapotec ba-.

Adverb[edit]

ba

  1. already

References[edit]

  • Long C., Rebecca; Cruz M., Sofronio (2000) Diccionario zapoteco de San Bartolomé Zoogocho, Oaxaca (Serie de vocabularios y diccionarios indígenas “Mariano Silva y Aceves”; 38)‎[3] (in Spanish), second electronic edition, Coyoacán, D.F.: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano, A.C., page 3

Yoruba[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. to ferment
    kòkó ti The cocoa seeds have fermented
  2. to carry out the process of fermentation on seeds or plants
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • ba before a direct object

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. (horticulture) to plant seeds in prepared pots for future transplanting into a farm (when it becomes an established seedling)
    ba òrom̀bóTo plant lemon seeds for future transplanting
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • ba before a direct object

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. to press a wound; to apply a warm compress on a wound
    Synonym: mọ́
    ba ojú egbòTo apply a warm compress to a wound
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • ba before a direct object

Etymology 4[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

  1. to hit (with an impact)
    ọfà á wọ́nThe arrow hit them
  2. to be overcome with fear (literally, to be hit with fear)
    ẹ̀rú bà wáFear overcame us
  3. (usually used with ilẹ̀) to be too long or oversized (to hit the ground)
    agbádá yìí bà mí nílẹ̀The agbada was too big for me
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]
  • ba before a direct object

Zou[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

ba

  1. (transitive) to owe

Etymology 2[edit]

Ba (2).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

  1. bat (mammal)

References[edit]

  • Lukram Himmat Singh (2013) A Descriptive Grammar of Zou, Canchipur: Manipur University, pages 44, 45

Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-báa.

Verb[edit]

-ba

  1. to be
  2. to become

Inflection[edit]

Tone L
Infinitive ukuba
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukuba ukungabi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yiba -be
Plural yibani -beni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyaba, ngiba engibayo, engiba ngiba angibi engingabi ngingabi
2nd singular uyaba, uba obayo, oba uba awubi ongabi ungabi
1st plural siyaba, siba esibayo, esiba siba asibi esingabi singabi
2nd plural niyaba, niba enibayo, eniba niba anibi eningabi ningabi
Class 1 uyaba, uba obayo, oba eba akabi ongabi engabi
Class 2 bayaba, baba ababayo, ababa beba ababi abangabi bengabi
Class 3 uyaba, uba obayo, oba uba awubi ongabi ungabi
Class 4 iyaba, iba ebayo, eba iba ayibi engabi ingabi
Class 5 liyaba, liba elibayo, eliba liba alibi elingabi lingabi
Class 6 ayaba, aba abayo, aba eba awabi angabi engabi
Class 7 siyaba, siba esibayo, esiba siba asibi esingabi singabi
Class 8 ziyaba, ziba ezibayo, eziba ziba azibi ezingabi zingabi
Class 9 iyaba, iba ebayo, eba iba ayibi engabi ingabi
Class 10 ziyaba, ziba ezibayo, eziba ziba azibi ezingabi zingabi
Class 11 luyaba, luba olubayo, oluba luba alubi olungabi lungabi
Class 14 buyaba, buba obubayo, obuba buba abubi obungabi bungabi
Class 15 kuyaba, kuba okubayo, okuba kuba akubi okungabi kungabi
Class 17 kuyaba, kuba okubayo, okuba kuba akubi okungabi kungabi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngibile, ngibē engibile, engibē ngibile, ngibē angibanga engingabanga ngingabanga
2nd singular ubile, ubē obile, obē ubile, ubē awubanga ongabanga ungabanga
1st plural sibile, sibē esibile, esibē sibile, sibē asibanga esingabanga singabanga
2nd plural nibile, nibē enibile, enibē nibile, nibē anibanga eningabanga ningabanga
Class 1 ubile, ubē obile, obē ebile, ebē akabanga ongabanga engabanga
Class 2 babile, babē ababile, ababē bebile, bebē ababanga abangabanga bengabanga
Class 3 ubile, ubē obile, obē ubile, ubē awubanga ongabanga ungabanga
Class 4 ibile, ibē ebile, ebē ibile, ibē ayibanga engabanga ingabanga
Class 5 libile, libē elibile, elibē libile, libē alibanga elingabanga lingabanga
Class 6 abile, abē abile, abē ebile, ebē awabanga angabanga engabanga
Class 7 sibile, sibē esibile, esibē sibile, sibē asibanga esingabanga singabanga
Class 8 zibile, zibē ezibile, ezibē zibile, zibē azibanga ezingabanga zingabanga
Class 9 ibile, ibē ebile, ebē ibile, ibē ayibanga engabanga ingabanga
Class 10 zibile, zibē ezibile, ezibē zibile, zibē azibanga ezingabanga zingabanga
Class 11 lubile, lubē olubile, olubē lubile, lubē alubanga olungabanga lungabanga
Class 14 bubile, bubē obubile, obubē bubile, bubē abubanga obungabanga bungabanga
Class 15 kubile, kubē okubile, okubē kubile, kubē akubanga okungabanga kungabanga
Class 17 kubile, kubē okubile, okubē kubile, kubē akubanga okungabanga kungabanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngāba engāba ngāba angibanga engingabanga ngingabanga
2nd singular wāba owāba wāba awubanga ongabanga ungabanga
1st plural sāba esāba sāba asibanga esingabanga singabanga
2nd plural nāba enāba nāba anibanga eningabanga ningabanga
Class 1 wāba owāba āba akabanga ongabanga engabanga
Class 2 bāba abāba bāba ababanga abangabanga bengabanga
Class 3 wāba owāba wāba awubanga ongabanga ungabanga
Class 4 yāba eyāba yāba ayibanga engabanga ingabanga
Class 5 lāba elāba lāba alibanga elingabanga lingabanga
Class 6 āba āba āba awabanga angabanga engabanga
Class 7 sāba esāba sāba asibanga esingabanga singabanga
Class 8 zāba ezāba zāba azibanga ezingabanga zingabanga
Class 9 yāba eyāba yāba ayibanga engabanga ingabanga
Class 10 zāba ezāba zāba azibanga ezingabanga zingabanga
Class 11 lwāba olwāba lwāba alubanga olungabanga lungabanga
Class 14 bāba obāba bāba abubanga obungabanga bungabanga
Class 15 kwāba okwāba kwāba akubanga okungabanga kungabanga
Class 17 kwāba okwāba kwāba akubanga okungabanga kungabanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingaba ngingaba ngingebe ngingebe
2nd singular ungaba ungaba ungebe ungebe
1st plural singaba singaba singebe singebe
2nd plural ningaba ningaba ningebe ningebe
Class 1 angaba engaba angebe engebe
Class 2 bangaba bengaba bangebe bengebe
Class 3 ungaba ungaba ungebe ungebe
Class 4 ingaba ingaba ingebe ingebe
Class 5 lingaba lingaba lingebe lingebe
Class 6 angaba engaba angebe engebe
Class 7 singaba singaba singebe singebe
Class 8 zingaba zingaba zingebe zingebe
Class 9 ingaba ingaba ingebe ingebe
Class 10 zingaba zingaba zingebe zingebe
Class 11 lungaba lungaba lungebe lungebe
Class 14 bungaba bungaba bungebe bungebe
Class 15 kungaba kungaba kungebe kungebe
Class 17 kungaba kungaba kungebe kungebe
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokuba engizokuba ngizokuba angizukuba engingezukuba ngingezukuba
2nd singular uzokuba ozokuba uzokuba awuzukuba ongezukuba ungezukuba
1st plural sizokuba esizokuba sizokuba asizukuba esingezukuba singezukuba
2nd plural nizokuba enizokuba nizokuba anizukuba eningezukuba ningezukuba
Class 1 uzokuba ozokuba ezokuba akazukuba ongezukuba engezukuba
Class 2 bazokuba abazokuba bezokuba abazukuba abangezukuba bengezukuba
Class 3 uzokuba ozokuba uzokuba awuzukuba ongezukuba ungezukuba
Class 4 izokuba ezokuba izokuba ayizukuba engezukuba ingezukuba
Class 5 lizokuba elizokuba lizokuba alizukuba elingezukuba lingezukuba
Class 6 azokuba azokuba ezokuba awazukuba angezukuba engezukuba
Class 7 sizokuba esizokuba sizokuba asizukuba esingezukuba singezukuba
Class 8 zizokuba ezizokuba zizokuba azizukuba ezingezukuba zingezukuba
Class 9 izokuba ezokuba izokuba ayizukuba engezukuba ingezukuba
Class 10 zizokuba ezizokuba zizokuba azizukuba ezingezukuba zingezukuba
Class 11 luzokuba oluzokuba luzokuba aluzukuba olungezukuba lungezukuba
Class 14 buzokuba obuzokuba buzokuba abuzukuba obungezukuba bungezukuba
Class 15 kuzokuba okuzokuba kuzokuba akuzukuba okungezukuba kungezukuba
Class 17 kuzokuba okuzokuba kuzokuba akuzukuba okungezukuba kungezukuba
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokuba engiyokuba ngiyokuba angiyukuba engingeyukuba ngingeyukuba
2nd singular uyokuba oyokuba uyokuba awuyukuba ongeyukuba ungeyukuba
1st plural siyokuba esiyokuba siyokuba asiyukuba esingeyukuba singeyukuba
2nd plural niyokuba eniyokuba niyokuba aniyukuba eningeyukuba ningeyukuba
Class 1 uyokuba oyokuba eyokuba akayukuba ongeyukuba engeyukuba
Class 2 bayokuba abayokuba beyokuba abayukuba abangeyukuba bengeyukuba
Class 3 uyokuba oyokuba uyokuba awuyukuba ongeyukuba ungeyukuba
Class 4 iyokuba eyokuba iyokuba ayiyukuba engeyukuba ingeyukuba
Class 5 liyokuba eliyokuba liyokuba aliyukuba elingeyukuba lingeyukuba
Class 6 ayokuba ayokuba eyokuba awayukuba angeyukuba engeyukuba
Class 7 siyokuba esiyokuba siyokuba asiyukuba esingeyukuba singeyukuba
Class 8 ziyokuba eziyokuba ziyokuba aziyukuba ezingeyukuba zingeyukuba
Class 9 iyokuba eyokuba iyokuba ayiyukuba engeyukuba ingeyukuba
Class 10 ziyokuba eziyokuba ziyokuba aziyukuba ezingeyukuba zingeyukuba
Class 11 luyokuba oluyokuba luyokuba aluyukuba olungeyukuba lungeyukuba
Class 14 buyokuba obuyokuba buyokuba abuyukuba obungeyukuba bungeyukuba
Class 15 kuyokuba okuyokuba kuyokuba akuyukuba okungeyukuba kungeyukuba
Class 17 kuyokuba okuyokuba kuyokuba akuyukuba okungeyukuba kungeyukuba
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngibe ngingabi
2nd singular ube ungabi
1st plural sibe singabi
2nd plural nibe ningabi
Class 1 abe angabi
Class 2 babe bangabi
Class 3 ube ungabi
Class 4 ibe ingabi
Class 5 libe lingabi
Class 6 abe angabi
Class 7 sibe singabi
Class 8 zibe zingabi
Class 9 ibe ingabi
Class 10 zibe zingabi
Class 11 lube lungabi
Class 14 bube bungabi
Class 15 kube kungabi
Class 17 kube kungabi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngaba ngangaba, angaba, angangaba
2nd singular waba wangaba, awaba, awangaba
1st plural saba sangaba, asaba, asangaba
2nd plural naba nangaba, anaba, anangaba
Class 1 waba wangaba, akaba, akangaba
Class 2 baba bangaba, ababa, abangaba
Class 3 waba wangaba, awaba, awangaba
Class 4 yaba yangaba, ayaba, ayangaba
Class 5 laba langaba, alaba, alangaba
Class 6 aba angaba, awaba, awangaba
Class 7 saba sangaba, asaba, asangaba
Class 8 zaba zangaba, azaba, azangaba
Class 9 yaba yangaba, ayaba, ayangaba
Class 10 zaba zangaba, azaba, azangaba
Class 11 lwaba lwangaba, alwaba, alwangaba
Class 14 baba bangaba, ababa, abangaba
Class 15 kwaba kwangaba, akwaba, akwangaba
Class 17 kwaba kwangaba, akwaba, akwangaba

References[edit]