esaba

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Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Verb[edit]

-esába

  1. (transitive) to fear, to be afraid/scared of
  2. (intransitive) to be afraid/scared/frightened
  3. (transitive) to respect, to have respect for

Inflection[edit]

Tone H
Infinitive ukwesaba
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukwesaba ukungesabi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yesaba -esabe
Plural yesabani -esabeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyesaba, ngesaba engesabayo, engesaba ngesaba angesabi engingesabi ngingesabi
2nd singular uyesaba, wesaba owesabayo, owesaba wesaba awesabi ongesabi ungesabi
1st plural siyesaba, sesaba esesabayo, esesaba sesaba asesabi esingesabi singesabi
2nd plural niyesaba, nesaba enesabayo, enesaba nesaba anesabi eningesabi ningesabi
Class 1 uyesaba, wesaba owesabayo, owesaba esaba akesabi ongesabi engesabi
Class 2 bayesaba, besaba abesabayo, abesaba besaba abesabi abangesabi bengesabi
Class 3 uyesaba, wesaba owesabayo, owesaba wesaba awesabi ongesabi ungesabi
Class 4 iyesaba, yesaba eyesabayo, eyesaba yesaba ayesabi engesabi ingesabi
Class 5 liyesaba, lesaba elesabayo, elesaba lesaba alesabi elingesabi lingesabi
Class 6 ayesaba, esaba esabayo, esaba esaba awesabi angesabi engesabi
Class 7 siyesaba, sesaba esesabayo, esesaba sesaba asesabi esingesabi singesabi
Class 8 ziyesaba, zesaba ezesabayo, ezesaba zesaba azesabi ezingesabi zingesabi
Class 9 iyesaba, yesaba eyesabayo, eyesaba yesaba ayesabi engesabi ingesabi
Class 10 ziyesaba, zesaba ezesabayo, ezesaba zesaba azesabi ezingesabi zingesabi
Class 11 luyesaba, lwesaba olwesabayo, olwesaba lwesaba alwesabi olungesabi lungesabi
Class 14 buyesaba, besaba obesabayo, obesaba besaba abesabi obungesabi bungesabi
Class 15 kuyesaba, kwesaba okwesabayo, okwesaba kwesaba akwesabi okungesabi kungesabi
Class 17 kuyesaba, kwesaba okwesabayo, okwesaba kwesaba akwesabi okungesabi kungesabi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngesabile, ngesabē engesabile, engesabē ngesabile, ngesabē angesabanga engingesabanga ngingesabanga
2nd singular wesabile, wesabē owesabile, owesabē wesabile, wesabē awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
1st plural sesabile, sesabē esesabile, esesabē sesabile, sesabē asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
2nd plural nesabile, nesabē enesabile, enesabē nesabile, nesabē anesabanga eningesabanga ningesabanga
Class 1 wesabile, wesabē owesabile, owesabē esabile, esabē akesabanga ongesabanga engesabanga
Class 2 besabile, besabē abesabile, abesabē besabile, besabē abesabanga abangesabanga bengesabanga
Class 3 wesabile, wesabē owesabile, owesabē wesabile, wesabē awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
Class 4 yesabile, yesabē eyesabile, eyesabē yesabile, yesabē ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 5 lesabile, lesabē elesabile, elesabē lesabile, lesabē alesabanga elingesabanga lingesabanga
Class 6 esabile, esabē esabile, esabē esabile, esabē awesabanga angesabanga engesabanga
Class 7 sesabile, sesabē esesabile, esesabē sesabile, sesabē asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
Class 8 zesabile, zesabē ezesabile, ezesabē zesabile, zesabē azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 9 yesabile, yesabē eyesabile, eyesabē yesabile, yesabē ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 10 zesabile, zesabē ezesabile, ezesabē zesabile, zesabē azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 11 lwesabile, lwesabē olwesabile, olwesabē lwesabile, lwesabē alwesabanga olungesabanga lungesabanga
Class 14 besabile, besabē obesabile, obesabē besabile, besabē abesabanga obungesabanga bungesabanga
Class 15 kwesabile, kwesabē okwesabile, okwesabē kwesabile, kwesabē akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Class 17 kwesabile, kwesabē okwesabile, okwesabē kwesabile, kwesabē akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngēsaba engēsaba ngēsaba angesabanga engingesabanga ngingesabanga
2nd singular wēsaba owēsaba wēsaba awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
1st plural sēsaba esēsaba sēsaba asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
2nd plural nēsaba enēsaba nēsaba anesabanga eningesabanga ningesabanga
Class 1 wēsaba owēsaba ēsaba akesabanga ongesabanga engesabanga
Class 2 bēsaba abēsaba bēsaba abesabanga abangesabanga bengesabanga
Class 3 wēsaba owēsaba wēsaba awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
Class 4 yēsaba eyēsaba yēsaba ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 5 lēsaba elēsaba lēsaba alesabanga elingesabanga lingesabanga
Class 6 ēsaba ēsaba ēsaba awesabanga angesabanga engesabanga
Class 7 sēsaba esēsaba sēsaba asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
Class 8 zēsaba ezēsaba zēsaba azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 9 yēsaba eyēsaba yēsaba ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 10 zēsaba ezēsaba zēsaba azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 11 lwēsaba olwēsaba lwēsaba alwesabanga olungesabanga lungesabanga
Class 14 bēsaba obēsaba bēsaba abesabanga obungesabanga bungesabanga
Class 15 kwēsaba okwēsaba kwēsaba akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Class 17 kwēsaba okwēsaba kwēsaba akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingesaba ngingesaba ngingesabe ngingesabe
2nd singular ungesaba ungesaba ungesabe ungesabe
1st plural singesaba singesaba singesabe singesabe
2nd plural ningesaba ningesaba ningesabe ningesabe
Class 1 angesaba engesaba angesabe engesabe
Class 2 bangesaba bengesaba bangesabe bengesabe
Class 3 ungesaba ungesaba ungesabe ungesabe
Class 4 ingesaba ingesaba ingesabe ingesabe
Class 5 lingesaba lingesaba lingesabe lingesabe
Class 6 angesaba engesaba angesabe engesabe
Class 7 singesaba singesaba singesabe singesabe
Class 8 zingesaba zingesaba zingesabe zingesabe
Class 9 ingesaba ingesaba ingesabe ingesabe
Class 10 zingesaba zingesaba zingesabe zingesabe
Class 11 lungesaba lungesaba lungesabe lungesabe
Class 14 bungesaba bungesaba bungesabe bungesabe
Class 15 kungesaba kungesaba kungesabe kungesabe
Class 17 kungesaba kungesaba kungesabe kungesabe
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokwesaba engizokwesaba ngizokwesaba angizukwesaba engingezukwesaba ngingezukwesaba
2nd singular uzokwesaba ozokwesaba uzokwesaba awuzukwesaba ongezukwesaba ungezukwesaba
1st plural sizokwesaba esizokwesaba sizokwesaba asizukwesaba esingezukwesaba singezukwesaba
2nd plural nizokwesaba enizokwesaba nizokwesaba anizukwesaba eningezukwesaba ningezukwesaba
Class 1 uzokwesaba ozokwesaba ezokwesaba akazukwesaba ongezukwesaba engezukwesaba
Class 2 bazokwesaba abazokwesaba bezokwesaba abazukwesaba abangezukwesaba bengezukwesaba
Class 3 uzokwesaba ozokwesaba uzokwesaba awuzukwesaba ongezukwesaba ungezukwesaba
Class 4 izokwesaba ezokwesaba izokwesaba ayizukwesaba engezukwesaba ingezukwesaba
Class 5 lizokwesaba elizokwesaba lizokwesaba alizukwesaba elingezukwesaba lingezukwesaba
Class 6 azokwesaba azokwesaba ezokwesaba awazukwesaba angezukwesaba engezukwesaba
Class 7 sizokwesaba esizokwesaba sizokwesaba asizukwesaba esingezukwesaba singezukwesaba
Class 8 zizokwesaba ezizokwesaba zizokwesaba azizukwesaba ezingezukwesaba zingezukwesaba
Class 9 izokwesaba ezokwesaba izokwesaba ayizukwesaba engezukwesaba ingezukwesaba
Class 10 zizokwesaba ezizokwesaba zizokwesaba azizukwesaba ezingezukwesaba zingezukwesaba
Class 11 luzokwesaba oluzokwesaba luzokwesaba aluzukwesaba olungezukwesaba lungezukwesaba
Class 14 buzokwesaba obuzokwesaba buzokwesaba abuzukwesaba obungezukwesaba bungezukwesaba
Class 15 kuzokwesaba okuzokwesaba kuzokwesaba akuzukwesaba okungezukwesaba kungezukwesaba
Class 17 kuzokwesaba okuzokwesaba kuzokwesaba akuzukwesaba okungezukwesaba kungezukwesaba
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokwesaba engiyokwesaba ngiyokwesaba angiyukwesaba engingeyukwesaba ngingeyukwesaba
2nd singular uyokwesaba oyokwesaba uyokwesaba awuyukwesaba ongeyukwesaba ungeyukwesaba
1st plural siyokwesaba esiyokwesaba siyokwesaba asiyukwesaba esingeyukwesaba singeyukwesaba
2nd plural niyokwesaba eniyokwesaba niyokwesaba aniyukwesaba eningeyukwesaba ningeyukwesaba
Class 1 uyokwesaba oyokwesaba eyokwesaba akayukwesaba ongeyukwesaba engeyukwesaba
Class 2 bayokwesaba abayokwesaba beyokwesaba abayukwesaba abangeyukwesaba bengeyukwesaba
Class 3 uyokwesaba oyokwesaba uyokwesaba awuyukwesaba ongeyukwesaba ungeyukwesaba
Class 4 iyokwesaba eyokwesaba iyokwesaba ayiyukwesaba engeyukwesaba ingeyukwesaba
Class 5 liyokwesaba eliyokwesaba liyokwesaba aliyukwesaba elingeyukwesaba lingeyukwesaba
Class 6 ayokwesaba ayokwesaba eyokwesaba awayukwesaba angeyukwesaba engeyukwesaba
Class 7 siyokwesaba esiyokwesaba siyokwesaba asiyukwesaba esingeyukwesaba singeyukwesaba
Class 8 ziyokwesaba eziyokwesaba ziyokwesaba aziyukwesaba ezingeyukwesaba zingeyukwesaba
Class 9 iyokwesaba eyokwesaba iyokwesaba ayiyukwesaba engeyukwesaba ingeyukwesaba
Class 10 ziyokwesaba eziyokwesaba ziyokwesaba aziyukwesaba ezingeyukwesaba zingeyukwesaba
Class 11 luyokwesaba oluyokwesaba luyokwesaba aluyukwesaba olungeyukwesaba lungeyukwesaba
Class 14 buyokwesaba obuyokwesaba buyokwesaba abuyukwesaba obungeyukwesaba bungeyukwesaba
Class 15 kuyokwesaba okuyokwesaba kuyokwesaba akuyukwesaba okungeyukwesaba kungeyukwesaba
Class 17 kuyokwesaba okuyokwesaba kuyokwesaba akuyukwesaba okungeyukwesaba kungeyukwesaba
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngesabe ngingesabi
2nd singular wesabe ungesabi
1st plural sesabe singesabi
2nd plural nesabe ningesabi
Class 1 esabe angesabi
Class 2 besabe bangesabi
Class 3 wesabe ungesabi
Class 4 yesabe ingesabi
Class 5 lesabe lingesabi
Class 6 esabe angesabi
Class 7 sesabe singesabi
Class 8 zesabe zingesabi
Class 9 yesabe ingesabi
Class 10 zesabe zingesabi
Class 11 lwesabe lungesabi
Class 14 besabe bungesabi
Class 15 kwesabe kungesabi
Class 17 kwesabe kungesabi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngesaba ngangesaba, angesaba, angangesaba
2nd singular wesaba wangesaba, awesaba, awangesaba
1st plural sesaba sangesaba, asesaba, asangesaba
2nd plural nesaba nangesaba, anesaba, anangesaba
Class 1 wesaba wangesaba, akesaba, akangesaba
Class 2 besaba bangesaba, abesaba, abangesaba
Class 3 wesaba wangesaba, awesaba, awangesaba
Class 4 yesaba yangesaba, ayesaba, ayangesaba
Class 5 lesaba langesaba, alesaba, alangesaba
Class 6 esaba angesaba, awesaba, awangesaba
Class 7 sesaba sangesaba, asesaba, asangesaba
Class 8 zesaba zangesaba, azesaba, azangesaba
Class 9 yesaba yangesaba, ayesaba, ayangesaba
Class 10 zesaba zangesaba, azesaba, azangesaba
Class 11 lwesaba lwangesaba, alwesaba, alwangesaba
Class 14 besaba bangesaba, abesaba, abangesaba
Class 15 kwesaba kwangesaba, akwesaba, akwangesaba
Class 17 kwesaba kwangesaba, akwesaba, akwangesaba

Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]