esaba

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Zulu[edit]

Etymology[edit]

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Verb[edit]

-esaba?

  1. (transitive) to fear, to be afraid/scared of
  2. (intransitive) to be afraid/scared/frightened
  3. (transitive) to respect, to have respect for

Inflection[edit]

Tone H
Infinitive ukwesaba
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukwesaba ukungesabi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular yesaba yesabe
Plural yesabani yesabeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyesaba, ngesaba engesabayo, engesaba ngesaba angesabi engingesabi ngingesabi
2nd singular uyesaba, wesaba owesabayo, owesaba wesaba awesabi ongesabi ungesabi
1st plural siyesaba, sesaba esesabayo, esesaba sesaba asesabi esingesabi singesabi
2nd plural niyesaba, nesaba enesabayo, enesaba nesaba anesabi eningesabi ningesabi
Class 1 uyesaba, wesaba owesabayo, owesaba esaba akesabi ongesabi engesabi
Class 2 bayesaba, besaba abesabayo, abesaba besaba abesabi abangesabi bengesabi
Class 3 uyesaba, wesaba owesabayo, owesaba wesaba awesabi ongesabi ungesabi
Class 4 iyesaba, esaba eyesabayo, eyesaba esaba ayesabi engesabi ingesabi
Class 5 liyesaba, lesaba elesabayo, elesaba lesaba alesabi elingesabi lingesabi
Class 6 ayesaba, esaba esabayo, esaba esaba awesabi angesabi engesabi
Class 7 siyesaba, sesaba esesabayo, esesaba sesaba asesabi esingesabi singesabi
Class 8 ziyesaba, zesaba ezesabayo, ezesaba zesaba azesabi ezingesabi zingesabi
Class 9 iyesaba, esaba eyesabayo, eyesaba esaba ayesabi engesabi ingesabi
Class 10 ziyesaba, zesaba ezesabayo, ezesaba zesaba azesabi ezingesabi zingesabi
Class 11 luyesaba, lwesaba olwesabayo, olwesaba lwesaba alwesabi olungesabi lungesabi
Class 14 buyesaba, besaba obesabayo, obesaba besaba abesabi obungesabi bungesabi
Class 15 kuyesaba, kwesaba okwesabayo, okwesaba kwesaba akwesabi okungesabi kungesabi
Class 17 kuyesaba, kwesaba okwesabayo, okwesaba kwesaba akwesabi okungesabi kungesabi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngesabile, ngesabē engesabile, engesabē ngesabile, ngesabē angesabanga engingesabanga ngingesabanga
2nd singular wesabile, wesabē owesabile, owesabē wesabile, wesabē awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
1st plural sesabile, sesabē esesabile, esesabē sesabile, sesabē asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
2nd plural nesabile, nesabē enesabile, enesabē nesabile, nesabē anesabanga eningesabanga ningesabanga
Class 1 wesabile, wesabē owesabile, owesabē esabile, esabē akesabanga ongesabanga engesabanga
Class 2 besabile, besabē abesabile, abesabē besabile, besabē abesabanga abangesabanga bengesabanga
Class 3 wesabile, wesabē owesabile, owesabē wesabile, wesabē awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
Class 4 esabile, esabē eyesabile, eyesabē esabile, esabē ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 5 lesabile, lesabē elesabile, elesabē lesabile, lesabē alesabanga elingesabanga lingesabanga
Class 6 esabile, esabē esabile, esabē esabile, esabē awesabanga angesabanga engesabanga
Class 7 sesabile, sesabē esesabile, esesabē sesabile, sesabē asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
Class 8 zesabile, zesabē ezesabile, ezesabē zesabile, zesabē azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 9 esabile, esabē eyesabile, eyesabē esabile, esabē ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 10 zesabile, zesabē ezesabile, ezesabē zesabile, zesabē azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 11 lwesabile, lwesabē olwesabile, olwesabē lwesabile, lwesabē alwesabanga olungesabanga lungesabanga
Class 14 besabile, besabē obesabile, obesabē besabile, besabē abesabanga obungesabanga bungesabanga
Class 15 kwesabile, kwesabē okwesabile, okwesabē kwesabile, kwesabē akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Class 17 kwesabile, kwesabē okwesabile, okwesabē kwesabile, kwesabē akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngēsaba engēsaba ngēsaba angesabanga engingesabanga ngingesabanga
2nd singular wēsaba owēsaba wēsaba awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
1st plural sēsaba esēsaba sēsaba asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
2nd plural nēsaba enēsaba nēsaba anesabanga eningesabanga ningesabanga
Class 1 wēsaba owēsaba ēsaba akesabanga ongesabanga engesabanga
Class 2 bēsaba abēsaba bēsaba abesabanga abangesabanga bengesabanga
Class 3 wēsaba owēsaba wēsaba awesabanga ongesabanga ungesabanga
Class 4 yēsaba eyēsaba yēsaba ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 5 lēsaba elēsaba lēsaba alesabanga elingesabanga lingesabanga
Class 6 ēsaba ēsaba ēsaba awesabanga angesabanga engesabanga
Class 7 sēsaba esēsaba sēsaba asesabanga esingesabanga singesabanga
Class 8 zēsaba ezēsaba zēsaba azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 9 yēsaba eyēsaba yēsaba ayesabanga engesabanga ingesabanga
Class 10 zēsaba ezēsaba zēsaba azesabanga ezingesabanga zingesabanga
Class 11 lwēsaba olwēsaba lwēsaba alwesabanga olungesabanga lungesabanga
Class 14 bēsaba obēsaba bēsaba abesabanga obungesabanga bungesabanga
Class 15 kwēsaba okwēsaba kwēsaba akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Class 17 kwēsaba okwēsaba kwēsaba akwesabanga okungesabanga kungesabanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingesaba ngingesaba ngingesabe ngingesabe
2nd singular ungesaba ungesaba ungesabe ungesabe
1st plural singesaba singesaba singesabe singesabe
2nd plural ningesaba ningesaba ningesabe ningesabe
Class 1 angesaba engesaba angesabe engesabe
Class 2 bangesaba bengesaba bangesabe bengesabe
Class 3 ungesaba ungesaba ungesabe ungesabe
Class 4 ingesaba ingesaba ingesabe ingesabe
Class 5 lingesaba lingesaba lingesabe lingesabe
Class 6 angesaba engesaba angesabe engesabe
Class 7 singesaba singesaba singesabe singesabe
Class 8 zingesaba zingesaba zingesabe zingesabe
Class 9 ingesaba ingesaba ingesabe ingesabe
Class 10 zingesaba zingesaba zingesabe zingesabe
Class 11 lungesaba lungesaba lungesabe lungesabe
Class 14 bungesaba bungesaba bungesabe bungesabe
Class 15 kungesaba kungesaba kungesabe kungesabe
Class 17 kungesaba kungesaba kungesabe kungesabe
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizokwesaba engizokwesaba ngizokwesaba angizukwesaba ngingezukwesaba
2nd singular uzokwesaba ozokwesaba uzokwesaba awuzukwesaba ungezukwesaba
1st plural sizokwesaba esizokwesaba sizokwesaba asizukwesaba singezukwesaba
2nd plural nizokwesaba enizokwesaba nizokwesaba anizukwesaba ningezukwesaba
Class 1 uzokwesaba ozokwesaba ezokwesaba akazukwesaba engezukwesaba
Class 2 bazokwesaba abazokwesaba bezokwesaba abazukwesaba bengezukwesaba
Class 3 uzokwesaba ozokwesaba uzokwesaba awuzukwesaba ungezukwesaba
Class 4 izokwesaba ezokwesaba izokwesaba ayizukwesaba ingezukwesaba
Class 5 lizokwesaba elizokwesaba lizokwesaba alizukwesaba lingezukwesaba
Class 6 azokwesaba azokwesaba ezokwesaba awazukwesaba engezukwesaba
Class 7 sizokwesaba esizokwesaba sizokwesaba asizukwesaba singezukwesaba
Class 8 zizokwesaba ezizokwesaba zizokwesaba azizukwesaba zingezukwesaba
Class 9 izokwesaba ezokwesaba izokwesaba ayizukwesaba ingezukwesaba
Class 10 zizokwesaba ezizokwesaba zizokwesaba azizukwesaba zingezukwesaba
Class 11 luzokwesaba oluzokwesaba luzokwesaba aluzukwesaba lungezukwesaba
Class 14 buzokwesaba obuzokwesaba buzokwesaba abuzukwesaba bungezukwesaba
Class 15 kuzokwesaba okuzokwesaba kuzokwesaba akuzukwesaba kungezukwesaba
Class 17 kuzokwesaba okuzokwesaba kuzokwesaba akuzukwesaba kungezukwesaba
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyokwesaba engiyokwesaba ngiyokwesaba angiyukwesaba ngingeyukwesaba
2nd singular uyokwesaba oyokwesaba uyokwesaba awuyukwesaba ungeyukwesaba
1st plural siyokwesaba esiyokwesaba siyokwesaba asiyukwesaba singeyukwesaba
2nd plural niyokwesaba eniyokwesaba niyokwesaba aniyukwesaba ningeyukwesaba
Class 1 uyokwesaba oyokwesaba eyokwesaba akayukwesaba engeyukwesaba
Class 2 bayokwesaba abayokwesaba beyokwesaba abayukwesaba bengeyukwesaba
Class 3 uyokwesaba oyokwesaba uyokwesaba awuyukwesaba ungeyukwesaba
Class 4 iyokwesaba eyokwesaba iyokwesaba ayiyukwesaba ingeyukwesaba
Class 5 liyokwesaba eliyokwesaba liyokwesaba aliyukwesaba lingeyukwesaba
Class 6 ayokwesaba ayokwesaba eyokwesaba awayukwesaba engeyukwesaba
Class 7 siyokwesaba esiyokwesaba siyokwesaba asiyukwesaba singeyukwesaba
Class 8 ziyokwesaba eziyokwesaba ziyokwesaba aziyukwesaba zingeyukwesaba
Class 9 iyokwesaba eyokwesaba iyokwesaba ayiyukwesaba ingeyukwesaba
Class 10 ziyokwesaba eziyokwesaba ziyokwesaba aziyukwesaba zingeyukwesaba
Class 11 luyokwesaba oluyokwesaba luyokwesaba aluyukwesaba lungeyukwesaba
Class 14 buyokwesaba obuyokwesaba buyokwesaba abuyukwesaba bungeyukwesaba
Class 15 kuyokwesaba okuyokwesaba kuyokwesaba akuyukwesaba kungeyukwesaba
Class 17 kuyokwesaba okuyokwesaba kuyokwesaba akuyukwesaba kungeyukwesaba
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngesabe ngingesabi
2nd singular wesabe ungesabi
1st plural sesabe singesabi
2nd plural nesabe ningesabi
Class 1 esabe angesabi
Class 2 besabe bangesabi
Class 3 wesabe ungesabi
Class 4 esabe ingesabi
Class 5 lesabe lingesabi
Class 6 esabe angesabi
Class 7 sesabe singesabi
Class 8 zesabe zingesabi
Class 9 esabe ingesabi
Class 10 zesabe zingesabi
Class 11 lwesabe lungesabi
Class 14 besabe bungesabi
Class 15 kwesabe kungesabi
Class 17 kwesabe kungesabi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngesaba angesaba
2nd singular wesaba awesaba
1st plural sesaba asesaba
2nd plural nesaba anesaba
Class 1 wesaba akesaba
Class 2 besaba abesaba
Class 3 wesaba awesaba
Class 4 yesaba ayesaba
Class 5 lesaba alesaba
Class 6 esaba awesaba
Class 7 sesaba asesaba
Class 8 zesaba azesaba
Class 9 yesaba ayesaba
Class 10 zesaba azesaba
Class 11 lwesaba alwesaba
Class 14 besaba abesaba
Class 15 kwesaba akwesaba
Class 17 kwesaba akwesaba

Alternative forms[edit]

References[edit]