baba

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English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

As one of the first utterances many babies are able to say, baba (like mama, papa, and dada) has come to be used in many languages as a term for various family members:

  • father: Albanian, Arabic, Western Armenian, Chinese, Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi, Bengali, Greek, Marathi, Mingrelian, Nepali, Persian, Swahili, Turkish, Yoruba, Shona, Zulu
  • grandmother: many Slavic languages (such as Bulgarian, Russian, Czech and Polish), Romanian, Yiddish, Japanese
  • grandfather: Azerbaijani, Zulu (father, grandfather)
  • baby: Afrikaans, Sinhala, Hungarian

These terms often continue to be used by English speakers whose families came from one of these cultures. In some cases, they may become more widely used in localities that have been heavily influenced by an immigrant community. Some senses were extensions of one of these family terms in the original languages ("old woman" from "grandmother", "holy man" from "father"). The "cake" sense comes through French, from Polish baba (old woman). The Middle Eastern word baba (as in Ali Baba) is rather a term of endearment, and is ultimately derived from Persian بابا (bābā, father) (from Old Persian pāpa; as opposed to the Arabic words أَبُو (ʾabū) and أَب (ʾab); see also Papak), and is linguistically related to the common European word papa and the word pope, having the same Indo-European origin. The Chinese word "baba", meaning father comes from 爸爸.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): (variously) /ˈbɑːbɑː/, /ˈbɑːbə/, /ˈbæbə/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɑːbɑː, -ɑːbə, -æbə

Noun[edit]

baba (plural babas)

  1. A kind of sponge cake soaked in rum-flavoured syrup.
  2. (especially among people of East European ancestry) A grandmother.
    • 1993, Karen Dubinsky, Improper Advances: Rape and Heterosexual Conflict in Ontario, 1880-1929, University of Chicago Press:
      My baba, Ksenia Dubinsky, tells me that my education makes her proud.
    • 2001, Brattleboro Remembers, edited by the Brattleboro [Vermont] Historical Society, Arcadia Publishing
      I walked first for my grandmother, and my mother was sorry she had missed my first steps. My Baba was so proud, my mother later told me.
    • 2004, MaryBeth Bond, editor, A Woman's Europe: True Stories:
      As we made eye contact, I slowly began to wonder if she was Baba. I did not know my grandmother though I'd spoken with her several times on the telephone;
  3. An old woman, especially a traditional old woman from an eastern European culture.
    • 1914, Russell Sage Foundation, Wage-earning Pittsburgh:
      Only two women, typical "babas" (peasant women) in the house from which I got my quilt and bedcloth, could be coaxed to pose;
    • 1986, Janice Kulyk Keefer, The Paris-Napoli Express:
      Laura hadn't known that anyone's mother could look like that, like the babas you sometimes saw downtown, bandaged in kerchiefs and aprons, sitting toothless in stockinged feet on small verandahs, peeling potatoes or beets or just shaking their heads and grimacing.
    • 2003, Colin Michael Hall; Liz Sharples, editors, Food Tourism Around The World: Development, Management and Markets:
      According to some, new volunteers are becoming more difficult to recruit and there are dark suggestions that 'money is being made on the backs of the babas', the dedicated, but ageing ladies who still spend countless hours of their time preparing foodstuffs for the occasion.
  4. (especially among people of Indian or Chinese ancestry) A father.
    • 1849, Edward Bulwer Lytton, The Caxtons:
      The first time I signed my exercise I wrote "Pisistratus Caxton" in my best round-hand. "And dey call your baba a scholar!" said the Doctor, contemptuously.
    • 1998, Mulan (movie)
      "The greatest gift and honor is having you for a daughter. I've missed you so." "I've missed you too, baba."
    • 2002, Bend It Like Beckham (movie)
      Okay. Okay. Fine, baba. Let's just do it before something else goes wrong.
    • 2003, House of Sand and Fog (movie)
      "Do not be disrespectful, son. Look at me." "Baba, were you a Savaki?"
  5. (Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism) A holy man, a spiritual leader.
    • 1995, Hugh J.M. Johnston and Tara Singh Bains, The Four Quarters of the Night: The Life-Journey of an Emigrant Sikh:
      While I was in Port Alberni, three babas came to Canada to raise money ...
    • 2004, Andrew Robinson, Satyajit Ray: The Inner Eye: The Biography of a Master Film-Maker:
      But according to Ray, 'all the babas my uncle knew were genuine. None of them was exposed. They were fairly humble people, not show-offs like the Maharishi ...
    • 2006, Suraiya Faroqhi, Subjects Of The Sultan: Culture And Daily Life In The Ottoman Empire:
      Most babas had little contact with written culture and are not therefore named in books and treatises.
  6. (British India) A baby, child.
    • 1876, Sir George Otto Trevelyan, The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay:
      That is to say, if I do not take care, I shall go on calling my darling 'Baba' till she is as old as her mamma, and has a dozen Babas of her own.
    • 1904, Rudyard Kipling, Traffics and Discoveries:
      For my child is dead—my baba is dead!
  7. In baby talk, often used for a variety of words beginning with b, such as bottle or blanket.
    • 2004, House (TV, episode 1.14)
      Oh, it's storytime! Let me get my baba.

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]

Afrikaans[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba (plural babas)

  1. baby

Related terms[edit]

Verb[edit]

baba (present baba, present participle babaende, past participle gebaba)

  1. to treat with gentle care, to coddle

Albanian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish بابا(baba), whence Turkish baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

babá m (indefinite plural baballárë, definite singular babái)

  1. dad, father
    Synonyms: bábë, átë
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bába

  1. inflection of bábë:
    1. definite nominative singular
    2. indefinite nominative/accusative plural

Atong (India)[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba (Bengali script বাবা)

  1. father
  2. paternal uncle
  3. son

Synonyms[edit]

(father):

References[edit]

Azerbaijani[edit]

Other scripts
Cyrillic баба
Perso-Arabic بابا

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [bɑˈbɑ]
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • (file)

Noun[edit]

baba (definite accusative babanı, plural babalar)

  1. grandfather
    Coordinate term: nənə

Declension[edit]

    Declension of baba
singular plural
nominative baba
babalar
definite accusative babanı
babaları
dative babaya
babalara
locative babada
babalarda
ablative babadan
babalardan
definite genitive babanın
babaların
    Possessive forms of baba
nominative
singular plural
mənim (my) babam babalarım
sənin (your) baban babaların
onun (his/her/its) babası babaları
bizim (our) babamız babalarımız
sizin (your) babanız babalarınız
onların (their) babası or babaları babaları
accusative
singular plural
mənim (my) babamı babalarımı
sənin (your) babanı babalarını
onun (his/her/its) babasını babalarını
bizim (our) babamızı babalarımızı
sizin (your) babanızı babalarınızı
onların (their) babasını or babalarını babalarını
dative
singular plural
mənim (my) babama babalarıma
sənin (your) babana babalarına
onun (his/her/its) babasına babalarına
bizim (our) babamıza babalarımıza
sizin (your) babanıza babalarınıza
onların (their) babasına or babalarına babalarına
locative
singular plural
mənim (my) babamda babalarımda
sənin (your) babanda babalarında
onun (his/her/its) babasında babalarında
bizim (our) babamızda babalarımızda
sizin (your) babanızda babalarınızda
onların (their) babasında or babalarında babalarında
ablative
singular plural
mənim (my) babamdan babalarımdan
sənin (your) babandan babalarından
onun (his/her/its) babasından babalarından
bizim (our) babamızdan babalarımızdan
sizin (your) babanızdan babalarınızdan
onların (their) babasından or babalarından babalarından
genitive
singular plural
mənim (my) babamın babalarımın
sənin (your) babanın babalarının
onun (his/her/its) babasının babalarının
bizim (our) babamızın babalarımızın
sizin (your) babanızın babalarınızın
onların (their) babasının or babalarının babalarının

Basque[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Basque, ultimately from Latin faba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba inan

  1. broad bean
  2. bean, green bean
    Synonym: babarrun
  3. blister

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • "baba" in Euskaltzaindiaren Hiztegia [Dictionary of the Basque Academy], euskaltzaindia.eus
  • baba” in Orotariko Euskal Hiztegia [General Basque Dictionary], euskaltzaindia.eus

Bikol Central[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *babaq, from Proto-Austronesian *babaq.

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /baˈbaʔ/
Adjective[edit]

babâ

  1. downstairs
    Antonym: taas
Noun[edit]

babâ

  1. shortness, lowness (based on height)
    Antonym: langkaw
  2. (dialectal) bottom; below
    Antonym: babaw
  3. descent
    Synonym: palos
  4. disembarkment
    Synonym: lusad
  5. act of going downstairs
    Synonym: hilig
  6. decrease; lowering of quantity or measurement
    Synonym: ina
Derived terms[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /ˈbabaʔ/
Noun[edit]

babà

  1. (anatomy) chin
    Synonym: kuko

Etymology 2[edit]

From padaba (loved one, term of endearment).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /ˈbabaʔ/

Noun[edit]

babà

  1. (Tabaco–Legazpi–Sorsogon, slang) loved one

Cebuano[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *baqbaq. First attested in Antonio Pigafetta's Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo—detailing the first circumnavigation of the world between 1519 and 1522.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈbaʔbaʔ/, [ˈbaʔbʌʔ]
  • Rhymes: -aʔ
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba

Noun[edit]

bâbâ

  1. (anatomy) mouth
  2. mouth of a river
  3. outlet; aperture; orifice
  4. talk; empty boasting, promises or claims

Verb[edit]

bâbâ

  1. to hit, be hit or injured in the mouth
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Compare abaga.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /baˈba/, [bʌˈba]
  • Rhymes: -a
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba

Verb[edit]

babá

  1. to piggyback; to carry someone on the back

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:baba.

Crimean Tatar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father
  2. dad

Declension[edit]

Czech[edit]

Czech Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia cs

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba f

  1. crone, hag
  2. coward, milksop
    Synonym: zbabělec
  3. (informal) girl, chick

Declension[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • baba in Kartotéka Novočeského lexikálního archivu
  • baba in Akademický slovník současné češtiny, 2012-, slovnikcestiny.cz
  • baba in Internetová jazyková příručka

Dagbani[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Unknown.

Noun[edit]

baba (plural babanima)

  1. Title of the second chief butcher

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. plural of babli (a featherless fowl)

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. Father

Ewe[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. termite, white ant[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fiagã, Kwasi (1976). Grammaire eʋe: Eʋegbe ŋutinunya. Lomé: Institut national de la recherche scientifique, p. 101.

Fanagalo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Zulu ubaba, from Proto-Bantu *bààbá.

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father

Finnish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Polish baba, probably via French.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈbɑbɑ/, [ˈbɑ̝bɑ̝]
  • Rhymes: -ɑbɑ
  • Syllabification(key): ba‧ba

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. baba, babka (type of cake)

Declension[edit]

Inflection of baba (Kotus type 9/kala, no gradation)
nominative baba babat
genitive baban babojen
partitive babaa baboja
illative babaan baboihin
singular plural
nominative baba babat
accusative nom. baba babat
gen. baban
genitive baban babojen
babainrare
partitive babaa baboja
inessive babassa baboissa
elative babasta baboista
illative babaan baboihin
adessive baballa baboilla
ablative babalta baboilta
allative baballe baboille
essive babana baboina
translative babaksi baboiksi
instructive baboin
abessive babatta baboitta
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of baba (type kala)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative babani babani
accusative nom. babani babani
gen. babani
genitive babani babojeni
babainirare
partitive babaani babojani
inessive babassani baboissani
elative babastani baboistani
illative babaani baboihini
adessive baballani baboillani
ablative babaltani baboiltani
allative baballeni baboilleni
essive babanani baboinani
translative babakseni baboikseni
instructive
abessive babattani baboittani
comitative baboineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative babasi babasi
accusative nom. babasi babasi
gen. babasi
genitive babasi babojesi
babaisirare
partitive babaasi babojasi
inessive babassasi baboissasi
elative babastasi baboistasi
illative babaasi baboihisi
adessive baballasi baboillasi
ablative babaltasi baboiltasi
allative baballesi baboillesi
essive babanasi baboinasi
translative babaksesi baboiksesi
instructive
abessive babattasi baboittasi
comitative baboinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative babamme babamme
accusative nom. babamme babamme
gen. babamme
genitive babamme babojemme
babaimmerare
partitive babaamme babojamme
inessive babassamme baboissamme
elative babastamme baboistamme
illative babaamme baboihimme
adessive baballamme baboillamme
ablative babaltamme baboiltamme
allative baballemme baboillemme
essive babanamme baboinamme
translative babaksemme baboiksemme
instructive
abessive babattamme baboittamme
comitative baboinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative babanne babanne
accusative nom. babanne babanne
gen. babanne
genitive babanne babojenne
babainnerare
partitive babaanne babojanne
inessive babassanne baboissanne
elative babastanne baboistanne
illative babaanne baboihinne
adessive baballanne baboillanne
ablative babaltanne baboiltanne
allative baballenne baboillenne
essive babananne baboinanne
translative babaksenne baboiksenne
instructive
abessive babattanne baboittanne
comitative baboinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative babansa babansa
accusative nom. babansa babansa
gen. babansa
genitive babansa babojensa
babainsarare
partitive babaansa babojaan
babojansa
inessive babassaan
babassansa
baboissaan
baboissansa
elative babastaan
babastansa
baboistaan
baboistansa
illative babaansa baboihinsa
adessive baballaan
baballansa
baboillaan
baboillansa
ablative babaltaan
babaltansa
baboiltaan
baboiltansa
allative baballeen
baballensa
baboilleen
baboillensa
essive babanaan
babanansa
baboinaan
baboinansa
translative babakseen
babaksensa
baboikseen
baboiksensa
instructive
abessive babattaan
babattansa
baboittaan
baboittansa
comitative baboineen
baboinensa

French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Polish baba, introduced in France in the eighteenth century at the court of Stanisław Leszczyński, king of Poland, duke of Lorraine and father-in-law of Louis XV.

Noun[edit]

baba m (plural babas)

  1. baba (type of cake)
    baba au rhumrum baba

Etymology 2[edit]

Onomatopoeic.

Adjective[edit]

baba (plural babas)

  1. (colloquial) flabbergasted
    • 1999, Anna Gavalda, “Ambre”, in Je voudrais que quelqu'un m'attende quelque part, →ISBN:
      C'était un Argentin qui mesurait au moins deux mètres, il souriait tout les temps. J'étais baba devant ses tatouages.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)

Further reading[edit]

Galician[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Attested since the 18th century. From the hypothesized Vulgar Latin *baba, ultimately imitative of children speech on the pattern of the repeated syllable ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba f (plural babas)

  1. drool
    Synonym: baballa
  2. slime (mucus-like substance which exudes from the bodies of certain animals)
    Synonym: baballa

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

Garo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Likely from Bengali বাবা (baba)

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father

Synonyms[edit]

German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

A link of the term with the English bye-bye is possible but not certain.

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

baba

  1. (informal, chiefly in Austria) see you, so long
Usage notes[edit]
  • In Austria, especially East Austria, baba is the most commonly used informal term for saying "goodbye".

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Turkish baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

baba (indeclinable, predicative only)

  1. (slang) boss, rad, fly
    Diese Jacke sieht richtig baba aus.
    This jacket looks bare nang.
    Ich finde den Schnitt baba.
    I deem the fit thrilling.
    Synonyms: Bombe, geisteskrank

Hausa[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

A widespread areal word.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bàː.bá/
    • (Standard Kano Hausa) IPA(key): [bàː.bə́]

Noun[edit]

bā̀ba m (possessed form bā̀ban)

  1. father
  2. Used as a term of address for a man of appropriate age to be one's father, or who shares one's father's name.

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bàː.báː/
    • (Standard Kano Hausa) IPA(key): [bàː.báː]

Noun[edit]

bā̀bā m (plural bā̀bànni, possessed form bā̀ban)

  1. eunuch
  2. impotent man

Etymology 3[edit]

Probably an early borrowing from Kanuri báwà (paternal aunt).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /báː.bà/
    • (Standard Kano Hausa) IPA(key): [báː.bə̀]

Noun[edit]

bābà f (possessed form bābàr̃)

  1. paternal aunt

References[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /báː.báː/
    • (Standard Kano Hausa) IPA(key): [báː.báː]

Noun[edit]

bābā m (possessed form bāban)

  1. indigo (the plant, or the dye from it)

Higaonon[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. mouth

Hiligaynon[edit]

Noun[edit]

bába or bâbâ

  1. mouth

Hungarian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

An onomatopoeia.[1] It may be a doublet of báb.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba (plural babák)

  1. doll (toy in the form of a human)
  2. baby, infant (very young human child, particularly from birth until walking is mastered)
    Synonyms: csecsemő, kisbaba, bébi
  3. (in the possessive, folk songs) baby, darling (term of endearment for a girlfriend, or less often, a boyfriend)
    Synonyms: kedves, (also in the possessive) pár

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative baba babák
accusative babát babákat
dative babának babáknak
instrumental babával babákkal
causal-final babáért babákért
translative babává babákká
terminative babáig babákig
essive-formal babaként babákként
essive-modal
inessive babában babákban
superessive babán babákon
adessive babánál babáknál
illative babába babákba
sublative babára babákra
allative babához babákhoz
elative babából babákból
delative babáról babákról
ablative babától babáktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
babáé babáké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
babáéi babákéi
Possessive forms of baba
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. babám babáim
2nd person sing. babád babáid
3rd person sing. babája babái
1st person plural babánk babáink
2nd person plural babátok babáitok
3rd person plural babájuk babáik

Derived terms[edit]

Compound words with this term at the beginning
Compound words with this term at the end
Expressions

Adjective[edit]

baba (comparative babább, superlative legbabább)

  1. (slang) swell, neat (exceptionally good, pleasing or enjoyable)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative baba babák
accusative babát babákat
dative babának babáknak
instrumental babával babákkal
causal-final babáért babákért
translative babává babákká
terminative babáig babákig
essive-formal babaként babákként
essive-modal
inessive babában babákban
superessive babán babákon
adessive babánál babáknál
illative babába babákba
sublative babára babákra
allative babához babákhoz
elative babából babákból
delative babáról babákról
ablative babától babáktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
babáé babáké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
babáéi babákéi

References[edit]

  1. ^ baba in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Further reading[edit]

  • baba in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • baba in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2023)

Ilocano[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *babaq.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /baˈba/, [bɐˈba]

Adverb[edit]

baba

  1. below
    Adda idiay baba
    It's down there.

Derived terms[edit]

Indonesian[edit]

Indonesian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia id

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈba.ba/
  • Rhymes: -ba, -a
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from Betawi [Term?].

Noun[edit]

baba (plural baba-baba, first-person possessive babaku, second-person possessive babamu, third-person possessive babanya)

  1. father

Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

baba (plural baba-baba, first-person possessive babaku, second-person possessive babamu, third-person possessive babanya)

  1. (nautical) rat

Etymology 3[edit]

Cognate of Cebuano babá (to piggyback).

Verb[edit]

baba

  1. to piggyback: to carry someone on the back

Further reading[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

baba

  1. Rōmaji transcription of ばば

Kabyle[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba m

  1. father

Kikuyu[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

The first a is pronounced long.[1]
As for Tonal Class, Benson (1964) classifies this term into Class 6 with a disyllabic stem, together with mũgwacĩ, nyamũ, and so on.
  • (Kiambu)

Noun[edit]

baba class 1

  1. my father, dad

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “baba” in Benson, T.G. (1964). Kikuyu-English dictionary, p. 21. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  2. ^ Yukawa, Yasutoshi (1981). "A Tentative Tonal Analysis of Kikuyu Nouns: A Study of Limuru Dialect." In Journal of Asian and African Studies, No. 22, 75–123.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kagaya, Ryohei (1982). "Tonal Analysis of Kikuyu Nouns in Three Dialects: Murang'a, Nyeri and Ndia." In Journal of Asian and African Studies, No. 24, 1–42.

Latgalian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from a Slavic language, from Proto-Slavic *baba. Doublet of buoba.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈbaba]
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba

Noun[edit]

baba f (diminutive babeņa)

  1. grandmother

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

  • dzeds (“grandfather”)

References[edit]

  • A. Andronov; L. Leikuma (2008) Latgalīšu-Latvīšu-Krīvu sarunu vuordineica, Lvava, →ISBN, page 10

Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba f (diminutive babka)

  1. midwife
  2. old woman
  3. woman
  4. sponge cake

Declension[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928), “baba”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999), “baba”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Luo[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father

Malay[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Voiced bapa.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba (plural baba-baba, informal 1st possessive babaku, 2nd possessive babamu, 3rd possessive babanya)

  1. father (male parent)

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Chinese: 爸爸[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Salmon Claudine. Malay (and Javanese) Loan-words in Chinese as a Mirror of Cultural Exchanges . In: Archipel, volume 78, 2009. pp. 181-208

Mansaka[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *babaq.

Adverb[edit]

baba

  1. below

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *baqbaq.

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. mouth

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *baba, compare Malay bawa.

Verb[edit]

baba

  1. to carry

Marshallese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (phonetic) IPA(key): [pˠɑːbˠɑ], (enunciated) [pˠɑ pˠɑ]
  • (phonemic) IPA(key): /pˠæɰpˠæɰ/
  • Bender phonemes: {bahbah}

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father
  2. daddy

References[edit]

Matal[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father
    La katskats tasàk à kəslah iyaw aŋatà à ahəŋ la baba aŋatà gà, tanəfà Yesu. (Mata 4:22)
    And immediately they left the boat and their father and followed Jesus. (Matthew 4:22)

Mwani[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *bààbá.

Noun[edit]

baba class 1a (plural wababa)

  1. father

Naga Pidgin[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Assamese বাবা (baba, father), Inherited from Ashokan Prakrit *𑀩𑀸𑀩𑁆𑀩 (*bābba).

Noun[edit]

baba (plural babakhan)

  1. father, dad
    Synonym: bap

Nefamese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Assamese বাবা (baba, father), from Ashokan Prakrit *𑀩𑀸𑀩𑁆𑀩 (*bābba).

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father, dad

Ngarluma[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. water
  2. rain, rainwater

References[edit]

Old Polish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *baba, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bā́ˀbāˀ, from nursery language. First attested in 1393.

Noun[edit]

baba f

  1. grandma (parent's mother)
    Synonym: babina
  2. grandma (any old woman)
  3. woman
  4. fortune teller
  5. midwife
  6. pear (Pyrus communis)
  7. (in the plural, astronomy) Pleiades

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

adjectives
nouns

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Phuthi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-bába.

Verb[edit]

-baba

  1. to taste bitter

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Polish[edit]

Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia pl

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Old Polish baba, from Proto-Slavic *baba, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *bā́ˀbāˀ, from nursery language. First attested in 1393.[1]

Noun[edit]

baba f (diminutive babka or babcia, augmentative babsko or babisko)

  1. (colloquial, somewhat derogatory) woman, crone, hag
  2. (colloquial) wife, girlfriend
  3. village woman (woman from the village)
    Synonyms: chłopka, wieśniaczka
  4. (childish) grandmother
    Synonyms: babcia, babka, babunia
  5. village seller (woman who sells things from the village)
  6. (derogatory) pansy, big girl's blouse (male of weak or cowardly character)
  7. babka (type of cake)
    Synonym: babka
  8. (engineering) hydraulic hammer of a pile driver
Declension[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
adjectives
adverb
nouns
phrases
verbs

Etymology 2[edit]

Borrowed from Persian بابا‎.

Noun[edit]

baba m pers

  1. (Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism) baba (a holy man, a spiritual leader)
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ B. Sieradzka-Baziur, editor (2011–2015), “baba”, in Słownik pojęciowy języka staropolskiego [Conceptual Dictionary of Old Polish] (in Polish), Kraków: IJP PAN, →ISBN

Further reading[edit]

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From the hypothesized Vulgar Latin *baba, ultimately imitative of children speech on the pattern of the repeated syllable ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

 

  • Rhymes: -abɐ
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba

Noun[edit]

baba f (plural babas)

  1. drool, dribble
  2. (vulgar, slang) Cowper's fluid; pre-ejaculate
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Verb[edit]

baba

  1. inflection of babar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Ratagnon[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. mouth

Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. definite singular of babă

Salar[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with Azerbaijani baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. grandfather

References[edit]

  • 林 (Lin), 莲云 (Lianyun) (1985), “baba”, in 撒拉语简志 [A Brief History of Salar], Beijing: 民族出版社: 琴書店, →OCLC, page 126
  • Ma, Chengjun; Han, Lianye; Ma, Weisheng (December 2010), “baba”, in 米娜瓦尔 艾比布拉 (Minavar Abibra), editor, 撒维汉词典 (Sāwéihàncídiǎn) [Salar-Uyghur-Chinese dictionary], 1st edition, Beijing, →ISBN, page 30

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bâba/
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba

Noun[edit]

bȁba f (Cyrillic spelling ба̏ба)

  1. (regional) grandmother
  2. granny, grandma
  3. (usually derogatory) old woman, hag
  4. (derogatory) female person

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  • baba” in Hrvatski jezični portal

Shona[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *bààbá.

Noun[edit]

babá class 1a (plural vababá class 2)

  1. father
  2. (Christianity) father (priest)
    Synonym: fata

Slovak[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba f (genitive singular baby, nominative plural baby, genitive plural báb, declension pattern of žena)

  1. (colloquial) old woman
  2. (colloquial) girl
  3. (dated) midwife
  4. (dated) doll
  5. (dated) puppet
  6. (dated) hash brown zemiaková baba, now zemiaková placka

Declension[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • baba in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

Slovene[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba f

  1. old woman, hag

Inflection[edit]

Feminine, a-stem
nom. sing. bába
gen. sing. bábe
singular dual plural
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
bába bábi bábe
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
bábe báb báb
dative
(dajȃlnik)
bábi bábama bábam
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
bábo bábi bábe
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
bábi bábah bábah
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
bábo bábama bábami

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • baba”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Southern Ndebele[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-bába.

Verb[edit]

-bába

  1. to be bitter

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the hypothesized Vulgar Latin *baba (drooling, infantile talk), ultimately imitative of children's speech on the pattern of the repeated syllable ba.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈbaba/ [ˈba.β̞a]
  • Rhymes: -aba
  • Syllabification: ba‧ba

Noun[edit]

baba f (plural babas)

  1. drool, dribble
    La chacha lavaba, y mientras lavaba, la baba se le caía.
    The maid washed, and as she washed, she drooled.
  2. slime
  3. (Venezuela) baby alligator, caiman or crocodile

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Swahili[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *bààbá.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba (n class, plural baba)

  1. father (male parent)
    baba mkwefather-in-law
    baba wa kambostep father

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Swazi[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-bába.

Verb[edit]

-bába

  1. (intransitive) to taste bitter

Inflection[edit]

This verb needs an inflection-table template.

Tagalog[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *babaq, from Proto-Austronesian *babaq.

Pronunciation 1[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /ˈbabaʔ/, [ˈbɐ.bɐʔ]
Noun[edit]

babà (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜊ)

  1. (anatomy) chin
    Synonym: (Marinduque) sihang
  2. lowness; low height
Derived terms[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /baˈbaʔ/, [bɐˈbaʔ]
Noun[edit]

babâ (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜊ)

  1. descent; going down
    Synonyms: lapag, lunsad, lusong, (of stairs) panaog
  2. getting off; alighting (from a vehicle or animal)
  3. downstairs; basement
    Synonyms: ibaba, lapag
  4. decrease; lowering (of quantity or measurement)
  5. fruit picking in season
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *baba, from Proto-Austronesian *baba.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /baˈba/, [bɐˈba] (noun, adjective: piggyback)
  • IPA(key): /ˈbaba/, [ˈba.bɐ] (noun:load in boat)

Noun[edit]

babá (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜊ)

  1. piggyback
  2. coitus of animals
    Synonym: kasta
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Adjective[edit]

babá (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜊ)

  1. carried piggyback

Noun[edit]

baba (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜊ)

  1. (obsolete) loading a person into a boat
    Synonyms: pagsakay, paglulan
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba
  • IPA(key): /baˈbaʔ/, [bɐˈbaʔ]

Noun[edit]

babâ (Baybayin spelling ᜊᜊ)

  1. (obsolete) name of the Baybayin letter , corresponding to "ba"

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • baba”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila: Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino, 2018
  • Fr. Juan José de Noceda; Fr. Pedro de Sanlucar (1860) Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, compuesto por varios religiosos doctos y graves[1] (in Spanish & Tagalog), Manila: Ramirez y Giraudier
  • Fr. Domingo de los Santos (1835), Tomas Oliva, editor, Vocabulario de la lengua tagala: primera, y segunda parte.[2] (in Spanish & Tagalog), La imprenta nueva de D. Jose Maria Dayot
  • Fr. Pedro de San Buena Ventura (1613), Juan de Silva, editor, Vocabulario de lengua tagala: El romance castellano puesto primero[3], La Noble Villa de Pila
    • page 2: “Abajar) Baba [(pc)] lo q̃ eſta alto”
    • page 99: “B) Baba (pc) aſi llaman eſtos [a nueſtra]. B. nombrandola .|. babayaon .|. . baba ang maſoſonor dito. B. [eſta que] aqui ſe a de ſeguir. Pero ſi la eſcriven o pronunçian es [ſimplemente]. B. vſanla ſiempre conſonante como noſotros q̃ yere en la bocal como, bata, bang̃is, bago, &c.”
    • page 101: “Bajo) Baba (pc) no alto, mababa, ad) cualquier coſa baja”
    • page 103: “Barba) Baba (pp) la carne [y no] el pelo o barba ſin pelo [como la] dela muger”
    • page 147: “Carga) Baba (pc) de alguna coſa”
    • page 147: “Cargar) Baba (pc) enlas eſpaldas algo”
    • page 359: “Humillarſe) Baba (pp) y ſujetarſe [en lo] interior”
    • page 398: “Lleuar) Baba [(pc) en barco] a alguna perſona”
    • page 405: “Mano) Baba (pp) tener pueſta en la mejilla”
    • page 414: “Melancolico) Baba [(pp)] eſtar pueſta la mano en la mejilla”

Taíno[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father

Tarifit[edit]

Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun[edit]

baba m (Tifinagh spelling ⴱⴰⴱⴰ)

  1. father

Related terms[edit]

Ternate[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father
    Synonym: aba

References[edit]

  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001). A Descriptive Study of the Language of Ternate, the Northern Moluccas, Indonesia. University of Pittsburgh.

Turkish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Ottoman Turkish بابا, Nişanyan suggests the current word is a result of onomatopoeia found commonly in many languages. First attested in 13th century.

Cognate with Southern Altai баабый (baabïy, small baby), папа (papa), Kazakh баба (baba), Bashkir баба (baba), Uzbek bobo, Uyghur بابا (baba), بوۋا (bowa), Turkmen baba, Azerbaijani baba (grandfather), etc.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bɑˈbɑ/
  • Hyphenation: ba‧ba

Noun[edit]

baba (definite accusative babayı, plural babalar)

  1. father
  2. Bektashi saint (as in Gül Baba)
  3. bollard
  4. (slang) crime boss
  5. (slang) penis, dick

Declension[edit]

Inflection
Nominative baba
Definite accusative babayı
Singular Plural
Nominative baba babalar
Definite accusative babayı babaları
Dative babaya babalara
Locative babada babalarda
Ablative babadan babalardan
Genitive babanın babaların
Possessive forms
Nominative
Singular Plural
1st singular babam babalarım
2nd singular baban babaların
3rd singular babası babaları
1st plural babamız babalarımız
2nd plural babanız babalarınız
3rd plural babaları babaları
Definite accusative
Singular Plural
1st singular babamı babalarımı
2nd singular babanı babalarını
3rd singular babasını babalarını
1st plural babamızı babalarımızı
2nd plural babanızı babalarınızı
3rd plural babalarını babalarını
Dative
Singular Plural
1st singular babama babalarıma
2nd singular babana babalarına
3rd singular babasına babalarına
1st plural babamıza babalarımıza
2nd plural babanıza babalarınıza
3rd plural babalarına babalarına
Locative
Singular Plural
1st singular babamda babalarımda
2nd singular babanda babalarında
3rd singular babasında babalarında
1st plural babamızda babalarımızda
2nd plural babanızda babalarınızda
3rd plural babalarında babalarında
Ablative
Singular Plural
1st singular babamdan babalarımdan
2nd singular babandan babalarından
3rd singular babasından babalarından
1st plural babamızdan babalarımızdan
2nd plural babanızdan babalarınızdan
3rd plural babalarından babalarından
Genitive
Singular Plural
1st singular babamın babalarımın
2nd singular babanın babalarının
3rd singular babasının babalarının
1st plural babamızın babalarımızın
2nd plural babanızın babalarınızın
3rd plural babalarının babalarının
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular babayım babalarım
2nd singular babasın babalarsın
3rd singular baba
babadır
babalar
babalardır
1st plural babayız babalarız
2nd plural babasınız babalarsınız
3rd plural babalar babalardır

Derived terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

baba

  1. (slang) top-notch, high-quality, very good

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • baba in Turkish dictionaries at Türk Dil Kurumu
  • Aktunç, Hulki (1998), “baba”, in Türkçenin büyük argo sözlüğü (tanıklarıyla) [Great Dictionary of Turkish Argot (with Attestations)] (in Turkish), Istanbul: YKY, page 55a
  • Devellioğlu, Ferit (1980), “baba”, in Türk argosu: Inceleme ve sözlük (Aydin Kitabevi yayınları. Sözlük dizisi; 1) (in Turkish), 6th edition, Ankara: Aydın Kitabevi, page 62a
  • Püsküllüoğlu, Ali (2021), “baba”, in Türkçenin Argo Sözlüğü [Turkish Slang Dictionary] (in Turkish), 4th edition, Ankara: Arkadaş, →ISBN, page 35

Upper Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *baba.

Noun[edit]

baba f

  1. old woman, grandmother
  2. midwife
  3. dough, pastry
  4. pelican (bird)

Further reading[edit]

  • baba” in Soblex

Venda[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *bààbá.

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father

West Makian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Together with the polite yaya (mother), likely borrowed from Ternate baba (father).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father

Usage notes[edit]

The term baba is used for addressing one's father, whereas the term fao is used for referring to a father.

References[edit]

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[4], Pacific linguistics

Yoruba[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bàbá

  1. father, dad
    Synonyms: baba, àbá, iba, bàá, , dádì
  2. A term of respect or endearment for an older man, male relative, or a higher ranking man.
  3. A title for a man of a specific occupation (ex. bàbá-alágbẹ̀dẹ (“blacksmith”)).
Usage notes[edit]

While bàbá is generally synonymous with baba, bàbá is a more restricted definition.

Coordinate terms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. father
    Synonym: bàbá
  2. elderly man of wisdom, sage, elder
    Synonym: bàbá
  3. revered or senior leader or entity
    ògòǹgò, baba ẹyẹThe ostrich, the most revered of all the birds
  4. male ancestor
    Synonym: baba-ńlá
  5. A prefix for given names in the class orúkọ àmútọ̀runwá, given to children who are believed to be reincarnations of a male ancestor. (ex. Babájídé, Babátúndé).
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Àwọn nǹkan oníbàbà
Chemical element
Cu
Previous: níkùlù (Ni)
Next: síǹkì (Zn)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bàbà

  1. copper (chemical element, Cu, atomical number 29)
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Bábà

Borrowed from English barber.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bábà

  1. barber
    Synonyms: onígbàjámọ̀, agẹrun, gẹrun-gẹrun

Etymology 5[edit]

Bàbà

Possibly from Etymology 3 (bàbà (copper)), in reference to the copper-like color of sorghum

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bàbà

  1. sorghum, millet, (in particular) Sorghum bicolor
    Synonyms: ọkà bàbà, jéró
  2. dark red color, in comparison to the color of sorghum
    Synonym: ẹpọ́n

Etymology 6[edit]

Adjective sense derives from ideophone sense

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bà.bà/, /bá.bá/

Ideophone[edit]

bàbà or bábá

  1. (of an object) to be quickly and rapidly hovering
Derived terms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bábá

  1. plentiful
    bábá owóPlentiful amount of money
Derived terms[edit]

Zulu[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Bantu *-bába.

Verb[edit]

-bába

  1. (intransitive) to taste hot, spicy
  2. (intransitive) to taste bitter
Inflection[edit]
Tone H
Infinitive ukubaba
Positive Negative
Infinitive ukubaba ukungababi
Imperative
Simple + object concord
Singular baba -babe
Plural babani -babeni
Present
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyababa, ngibaba engibabayo, engibaba ngibaba angibabi engingababi ngingababi
2nd singular uyababa, ubaba obabayo, obaba ubaba awubabi ongababi ungababi
1st plural siyababa, sibaba esibabayo, esibaba sibaba asibabi esingababi singababi
2nd plural niyababa, nibaba enibabayo, enibaba nibaba anibabi eningababi ningababi
Class 1 uyababa, ubaba obabayo, obaba ebaba akababi ongababi engababi
Class 2 bayababa, bababa abababayo, abababa bebaba abababi abangababi bengababi
Class 3 uyababa, ubaba obabayo, obaba ubaba awubabi ongababi ungababi
Class 4 iyababa, ibaba ebabayo, ebaba ibaba ayibabi engababi ingababi
Class 5 liyababa, libaba elibabayo, elibaba libaba alibabi elingababi lingababi
Class 6 ayababa, ababa ababayo, ababa ebaba awababi angababi engababi
Class 7 siyababa, sibaba esibabayo, esibaba sibaba asibabi esingababi singababi
Class 8 ziyababa, zibaba ezibabayo, ezibaba zibaba azibabi ezingababi zingababi
Class 9 iyababa, ibaba ebabayo, ebaba ibaba ayibabi engababi ingababi
Class 10 ziyababa, zibaba ezibabayo, ezibaba zibaba azibabi ezingababi zingababi
Class 11 luyababa, lubaba olubabayo, olubaba lubaba alubabi olungababi lungababi
Class 14 buyababa, bubaba obubabayo, obubaba bubaba abubabi obungababi bungababi
Class 15 kuyababa, kubaba okubabayo, okubaba kubaba akubabi okungababi kungababi
Class 17 kuyababa, kubaba okubabayo, okubaba kubaba akubabi okungababi kungababi
Recent past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngibabile, ngibabē engibabile, engibabē ngibabile, ngibabē angibabanga engingababanga ngingababanga
2nd singular ubabile, ubabē obabile, obabē ubabile, ubabē awubabanga ongababanga ungababanga
1st plural sibabile, sibabē esibabile, esibabē sibabile, sibabē asibabanga esingababanga singababanga
2nd plural nibabile, nibabē enibabile, enibabē nibabile, nibabē anibabanga eningababanga ningababanga
Class 1 ubabile, ubabē obabile, obabē ebabile, ebabē akababanga ongababanga engababanga
Class 2 bababile, bababē abababile, abababē bebabile, bebabē abababanga abangababanga bengababanga
Class 3 ubabile, ubabē obabile, obabē ubabile, ubabē awubabanga ongababanga ungababanga
Class 4 ibabile, ibabē ebabile, ebabē ibabile, ibabē ayibabanga engababanga ingababanga
Class 5 libabile, libabē elibabile, elibabē libabile, libabē alibabanga elingababanga lingababanga
Class 6 ababile, ababē ababile, ababē ebabile, ebabē awababanga angababanga engababanga
Class 7 sibabile, sibabē esibabile, esibabē sibabile, sibabē asibabanga esingababanga singababanga
Class 8 zibabile, zibabē ezibabile, ezibabē zibabile, zibabē azibabanga ezingababanga zingababanga
Class 9 ibabile, ibabē ebabile, ebabē ibabile, ibabē ayibabanga engababanga ingababanga
Class 10 zibabile, zibabē ezibabile, ezibabē zibabile, zibabē azibabanga ezingababanga zingababanga
Class 11 lubabile, lubabē olubabile, olubabē lubabile, lubabē alubabanga olungababanga lungababanga
Class 14 bubabile, bubabē obubabile, obubabē bubabile, bubabē abubabanga obungababanga bungababanga
Class 15 kubabile, kubabē okubabile, okubabē kubabile, kubabē akubabanga okungababanga kungababanga
Class 17 kubabile, kubabē okubabile, okubabē kubabile, kubabē akubabanga okungababanga kungababanga
Remote past
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngābaba engābaba ngābaba angibabanga engingababanga ngingababanga
2nd singular wābaba owābaba wābaba awubabanga ongababanga ungababanga
1st plural sābaba esābaba sābaba asibabanga esingababanga singababanga
2nd plural nābaba enābaba nābaba anibabanga eningababanga ningababanga
Class 1 wābaba owābaba ābaba akababanga ongababanga engababanga
Class 2 bābaba abābaba bābaba abababanga abangababanga bengababanga
Class 3 wābaba owābaba wābaba awubabanga ongababanga ungababanga
Class 4 yābaba eyābaba yābaba ayibabanga engababanga ingababanga
Class 5 lābaba elābaba lābaba alibabanga elingababanga lingababanga
Class 6 ābaba ābaba ābaba awababanga angababanga engababanga
Class 7 sābaba esābaba sābaba asibabanga esingababanga singababanga
Class 8 zābaba ezābaba zābaba azibabanga ezingababanga zingababanga
Class 9 yābaba eyābaba yābaba ayibabanga engababanga ingababanga
Class 10 zābaba ezābaba zābaba azibabanga ezingababanga zingababanga
Class 11 lwābaba olwābaba lwābaba alubabanga olungababanga lungababanga
Class 14 bābaba obābaba bābaba abubabanga obungababanga bungababanga
Class 15 kwābaba okwābaba kwābaba akubabanga okungababanga kungababanga
Class 17 kwābaba okwābaba kwābaba akubabanga okungababanga kungababanga
Potential
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngingababa ngingababa ngingebabe ngingebabe
2nd singular ungababa ungababa ungebabe ungebabe
1st plural singababa singababa singebabe singebabe
2nd plural ningababa ningababa ningebabe ningebabe
Class 1 angababa engababa angebabe engebabe
Class 2 bangababa bengababa bangebabe bengebabe
Class 3 ungababa ungababa ungebabe ungebabe
Class 4 ingababa ingababa ingebabe ingebabe
Class 5 lingababa lingababa lingebabe lingebabe
Class 6 angababa engababa angebabe engebabe
Class 7 singababa singababa singebabe singebabe
Class 8 zingababa zingababa zingebabe zingebabe
Class 9 ingababa ingababa ingebabe ingebabe
Class 10 zingababa zingababa zingebabe zingebabe
Class 11 lungababa lungababa lungebabe lungebabe
Class 14 bungababa bungababa bungebabe bungebabe
Class 15 kungababa kungababa kungebabe kungebabe
Class 17 kungababa kungababa kungebabe kungebabe
Immediate future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngizobaba engizobaba ngizobaba angizubaba engingezubaba ngingezubaba
2nd singular uzobaba ozobaba uzobaba awuzubaba ongezubaba ungezubaba
1st plural sizobaba esizobaba sizobaba asizubaba esingezubaba singezubaba
2nd plural nizobaba enizobaba nizobaba anizubaba eningezubaba ningezubaba
Class 1 uzobaba ozobaba ezobaba akazubaba ongezubaba engezubaba
Class 2 bazobaba abazobaba bezobaba abazubaba abangezubaba bengezubaba
Class 3 uzobaba ozobaba uzobaba awuzubaba ongezubaba ungezubaba
Class 4 izobaba ezobaba izobaba ayizubaba engezubaba ingezubaba
Class 5 lizobaba elizobaba lizobaba alizubaba elingezubaba lingezubaba
Class 6 azobaba azobaba ezobaba awazubaba angezubaba engezubaba
Class 7 sizobaba esizobaba sizobaba asizubaba esingezubaba singezubaba
Class 8 zizobaba ezizobaba zizobaba azizubaba ezingezubaba zingezubaba
Class 9 izobaba ezobaba izobaba ayizubaba engezubaba ingezubaba
Class 10 zizobaba ezizobaba zizobaba azizubaba ezingezubaba zingezubaba
Class 11 luzobaba oluzobaba luzobaba aluzubaba olungezubaba lungezubaba
Class 14 buzobaba obuzobaba buzobaba abuzubaba obungezubaba bungezubaba
Class 15 kuzobaba okuzobaba kuzobaba akuzubaba okungezubaba kungezubaba
Class 17 kuzobaba okuzobaba kuzobaba akuzubaba okungezubaba kungezubaba
Remote future
Positive absolute Positive relative Positive participial Negative absolute Negative relative Negative participial
1st singular ngiyobaba engiyobaba ngiyobaba angiyubaba engingeyubaba ngingeyubaba
2nd singular uyobaba oyobaba uyobaba awuyubaba ongeyubaba ungeyubaba
1st plural siyobaba esiyobaba siyobaba asiyubaba esingeyubaba singeyubaba
2nd plural niyobaba eniyobaba niyobaba aniyubaba eningeyubaba ningeyubaba
Class 1 uyobaba oyobaba eyobaba akayubaba ongeyubaba engeyubaba
Class 2 bayobaba abayobaba beyobaba abayubaba abangeyubaba bengeyubaba
Class 3 uyobaba oyobaba uyobaba awuyubaba ongeyubaba ungeyubaba
Class 4 iyobaba eyobaba iyobaba ayiyubaba engeyubaba ingeyubaba
Class 5 liyobaba eliyobaba liyobaba aliyubaba elingeyubaba lingeyubaba
Class 6 ayobaba ayobaba eyobaba awayubaba angeyubaba engeyubaba
Class 7 siyobaba esiyobaba siyobaba asiyubaba esingeyubaba singeyubaba
Class 8 ziyobaba eziyobaba ziyobaba aziyubaba ezingeyubaba zingeyubaba
Class 9 iyobaba eyobaba iyobaba ayiyubaba engeyubaba ingeyubaba
Class 10 ziyobaba eziyobaba ziyobaba aziyubaba ezingeyubaba zingeyubaba
Class 11 luyobaba oluyobaba luyobaba aluyubaba olungeyubaba lungeyubaba
Class 14 buyobaba obuyobaba buyobaba abuyubaba obungeyubaba bungeyubaba
Class 15 kuyobaba okuyobaba kuyobaba akuyubaba okungeyubaba kungeyubaba
Class 17 kuyobaba okuyobaba kuyobaba akuyubaba okungeyubaba kungeyubaba
Present subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngibabe ngingababi
2nd singular ubabe ungababi
1st plural sibabe singababi
2nd plural nibabe ningababi
Class 1 ababe angababi
Class 2 bababe bangababi
Class 3 ubabe ungababi
Class 4 ibabe ingababi
Class 5 libabe lingababi
Class 6 ababe angababi
Class 7 sibabe singababi
Class 8 zibabe zingababi
Class 9 ibabe ingababi
Class 10 zibabe zingababi
Class 11 lubabe lungababi
Class 14 bubabe bungababi
Class 15 kubabe kungababi
Class 17 kubabe kungababi
Past subjunctive
Positive Negative
1st singular ngababa ngangababa, angababa, angangababa
2nd singular wababa wangababa, awababa, awangababa
1st plural sababa sangababa, asababa, asangababa
2nd plural nababa nangababa, anababa, anangababa
Class 1 wababa wangababa, akababa, akangababa
Class 2 bababa bangababa, abababa, abangababa
Class 3 wababa wangababa, awababa, awangababa
Class 4 yababa yangababa, ayababa, ayangababa
Class 5 lababa langababa, alababa, alangababa
Class 6 ababa angababa, awababa, awangababa
Class 7 sababa sangababa, asababa, asangababa
Class 8 zababa zangababa, azababa, azangababa
Class 9 yababa yangababa, ayababa, ayangababa
Class 10 zababa zangababa, azababa, azangababa
Class 11 lwababa lwangababa, alwababa, alwangababa
Class 14 bababa bangababa, abababa, abangababa
Class 15 kwababa kwangababa, akwababa, akwangababa
Class 17 kwababa kwangababa, akwababa, akwangababa

Etymology 2[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Noun[edit]

baba

  1. simple singular of ubaba

References[edit]