rat

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See also: Rat, RAT, rǎt, rất, rät, and råt

English[edit]

A brown rat, one of the many species of rat.
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Pronunciation[edit]

  • enPR: răt, IPA(key): /ɹæt/
  • (file)
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -æt

Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English ratte, rat, rotte, from Old English rætt, from Proto-West Germanic *ratt, from Proto-Germanic *rattaz, *rattō (compare West Frisian rôt, Dutch rat), of uncertain origin, possibly from Proto-Indo-European *reh₁d- (to scrape, scratch, gnaw). However, the rat may have been unknown in Northern Europe in antiquity, and the Proto-Germanic word may have referred to a different animal; see *rattaz for more.[1] Attestation of this family of words begins in the 12th century.[citation needed]

Some of the Germanic cognates show considerable consonant variation, e.g. Middle Low German ratte, radde; Middle High German rate, ratte, ratze.[1] The irregularity may be symptomatic of a late dispersal of the word, although Kroonen accounts for it with a Proto-Germanic stem *raþō nom., *ruttaz gen.,[1] showing both ablaut and a Kluge's law alternation, with the variation arising from varying remodellings in the descendants. Kroonen states that this requires a Proto-Indo-European etymon in final *t and is incompatible with the usual derivation from Proto-Indo-European *reh₁d- (to scrape, scratch, gnaw).[1]

Noun[edit]

rat (plural rats)

  1. (zoology) A medium-sized rodent belonging to the genus Rattus.
    • 2013 May-June, Charles T. Ambrose, “Alzheimer’s Disease”, in American Scientist, volume 101, number 3, page 200:
      Similar studies of rats have employed four different intracranial resorbable, slow sustained release systems—surgical foam, a thermal gel depot, a microcapsule or biodegradable polymer beads.
  2. (informal) Any of the numerous members of several rodent families (e.g. voles and mice) that resemble true rats in appearance, usually having a pointy snout, a long, bare tail, and body length greater than about 12 cm, or 5 inches.
  3. (informal) A person who is known for betrayal; a scoundrel; a quisling.
    What a rat, leaving us stranded here!
    • 1936, F.J. Thwaites, chapter XVIII, in The Redemption, Sydney: H. John Edwards, published 1940, page 185:
      "Ah, so you damn rat, this is a put-up job eh?"
  4. (informal) An informant or snitch.
  5. (informal) A scab: a worker who acts against trade union policies.
  6. (slang) A person who routinely spends time at a particular location.
    Our teenager has become a mall rat.
    He loved hockey and was a devoted rink rat.
  7. A wad of shed hair used as part of a hairstyle.
  8. A roll of material used to puff out the hair, which is turned over it.
  9. (UK, north-west London, slang, vulgar) Vagina.
    Get your rat out.
  10. (chiefly informal) Short for muskrat.
    • 1910, L. W. Pierce, "Muskrats are fast disappearing", in Hunter-trader-trapper, page 70:
      The price of rats began to rise and soon after the marsh froze over, spearing rats began, which was done with a one tine three-eighths inch steel rod, with a wooden handle []
    • 1929, E. J. Dailey, in Hardings Magazine's Question Box, printed in Fur Fish Game, page 73:
      Where natural marshes, or natural foods are found, are best places for raising muskrats. Louisiana and other southern states raise millions of rats, but they do not bring as good prices as northern raised ones. Delaware and Maryland have famed marshes. Other states are becoming noted for muskrat raising, also.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Terms derived from rat
Translations[edit]
See also[edit]

Verb[edit]

rat (third-person singular simple present rats, present participle ratting, simple past and past participle ratted)

  1. (usually with “on” or “out”) To betray a person or party, especially by telling their secret to an authority or an enemy; to turn someone in.
    He ratted on his coworker.
    He is going to rat us out!
  2. (informal, intransitive) To work as a scab, going against trade union policies.
  3. (of a dog, etc.) To kill rats.
Synonyms[edit]
Translations[edit]
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Guus Kroonen, The Proto-Germanic n-stems (2011), page 222

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English ratten, further etymology unknown. Compare Middle High German ratzen (to scratch; rasp; tear). Could be related to write. See also rit.

Noun[edit]

rat (plural rats)

  1. (regional) A scratch or a score.
  2. (nautical, regional) A place in the sea with rapid currents and crags where a ship is likely to be torn apart in stormy weather.

Verb[edit]

rat (third-person singular simple present rats, present participle ratting, simple past and past participle ratted)

  1. (regional) To scratch or score.
    He ratted a vertical line on his face with a pocket knife.
  2. (regional, rare, obsolete) To tear, rip, rend.
    Ratted to shreds.
  3. Damn, drat, blast; used in oaths.
    • 1904, Rafael Sabatini, The Tavern Knight, chapter XXVI:
      “But, rat me, sir,” cried Foster in bewilderment, “tis too generous—'pon honour it is. I can't consent to it. No, rat me, I can't.”
Usage notes[edit]

The verb rat is rarely used in the second sense. In the sense to tear, rip, rend, the form to-rat is more common. Compare German zerreißen (to rip up, tear, rend).

References[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat (plural rats)

  1. (military, slang) A ration.
    • 2014, John, Buffoon (page 243)
      With regards to the testing of his product, the initial blood analysis had come back confirming huge, distinctive nutritional superiority for Stewart's military ration pack. Given that the policy of the British Army is to be fully ready for war at the drop of a hat, he was sitting on the potential of supplying new rats for the entire army []
Derived terms[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Catalan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat m (plural rats)

  1. rat
    Synonym: rata

Further reading[edit]


Danish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Low German rat (wheel), from Old Saxon rath.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat n (singular definite rattet, plural indefinite rat)

  1. wheel, steering wheel

Inflection[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • rot (Northern Dutch, dialectal)

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch ratte.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat f (plural ratten, diminutive ratje n)

  1. (zoology) A rat, medium-sized rodent belonging to the genus Rattus, or of certain other genera in the family Muridae.
  2. (informal) Any of the numerous, fairly large members of several rodent families that resemble true rats in appearance.
  3. (informal) A traitor; a scoundrel; a quisling.
  4. (informal) An informant or snitch.
  5. (informal) An urchin.
  6. (informal) A pauper; undesirable commoner.
  7. (slang) A watch.

Derived terms[edit]

- animal species

Descendants[edit]

  • Afrikaans: rot
  • Jersey Dutch: rot
  • Negerhollands: rotto, roto
    • Virgin Islands Creole: roto (dated)
  • ? Galibi Carib: alata (via Sranantongo, possibly from Spanish)
  • ? Saramaccan: alátu (possibly from Spanish)

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle French rat (rat), from Old French rat (rat).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat m (plural rats)

  1. rat
  2. (informal) sweetheart
  3. scrooge

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Indonesian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Javanese rat (ꦫꦠ꧀),

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈrat̪̚]
  • Hyphenation: rat

Noun[edit]

rat (first-person possessive ratku, second-person possessive ratmu, third-person possessive ratnya)

  1. (archaic) world
    Synonyms: alam, dunia, jagat

Further reading[edit]


Kalasha[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit रात्रि (rātri). Cognate with Hindi रात (rāt).

Noun[edit]

rat (Arabic رات‎)

  1. night

Maltese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

rat

  1. third-person feminine singular perfect of ra

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Dutch *rath, from Proto-Germanic *raþą, from Proto-Indo-European *Hret-.

Noun[edit]

rat n

  1. wheel
    Synonym: wiel
Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch *rath, from Proto-Germanic *raþaz, from Proto-Indo-European *Hret-.

Adjective[edit]

rat

  1. fast, quick
Inflection[edit]

This adjective needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Middle English[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat

  1. Alternative form of ratte

Norman[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old French rat (rat).

Noun[edit]

rat m (plural rats)

  1. (Jersey, Guernsey) rat

Derived terms[edit]


Occitan[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (file)

Noun[edit]

rat m (plural rats)

  1. (Rattus rattus)[1] black rat

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gui Benoèt, "Las bèstias", 2008, Toulouse, IEO Edicions, 2008, →ISBN, p. 161

Old French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Of Germanic origin, from Old High German rato (rat) or Frankish *rato (rat).

Noun[edit]

rat m (oblique plural raz or ratz, nominative singular raz or ratz, nominative plural rat)

  1. rat (rodent)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

Bratchet, A. (1873), “rat”, in Kitchin, G. W., transl., Etymological dictionary of the French language (Clarendon Press Series), 1st edition, London: Oxford/MacMillan and Co.


Old Javanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *daʀat.

Noun[edit]

rat

  1. land

Romani[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Inherited from Prakrit 𑀭𑀢𑁆𑀢 (ratta),[1][2] from Sanskrit रक्त (rakta).[1][2][3] Cognate with dialectal Hindi रात (rāt)[3] and Punjabi ਰੱਤ (ratta).

Noun[edit]

rat m (nominative plural rata)

  1. blood[1][2][3][4]

Etymology 2[edit]

Inherited from Prakrit 𑀭𑀢𑁆𑀢𑀺 (ratti),[5][6] from Sanskrit रात्रि (rātri).[5][6]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat f (nominative plural ratǎ)

  1. night[6][7]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “rakta1”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press, page 610
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Boretzky, Norbert; Igla, Birgit (1994), “rat²”, in Wörterbuch Romani-Deutsch-Englisch für den südosteuropäischen Raum : mit einer Grammatik der Dialektvarianten [Romani-German-English dictionary for the Southern European region] (in German), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, →ISBN, page 243a
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Dieter W. Halwachs (September 2001), “Origin and Denomination”, in ROMBASE Cultural Database[1], Graz, Austria, archived from the original on August 19, 2021
  4. ^ Marcel Courthiade (2009), “o rat, -es- ʒ. [sic] -a, -en-”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (in Hungarian; English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 303ab
  5. 5.0 5.1 Turner, Ralph Lilley (1969–1985), “rāˊtrī”, in A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, London: Oxford University Press, page 619
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Boretzky, Norbert; Igla, Birgit (1994), “rat¹”, in Wörterbuch Romani-Deutsch-Englisch für den südosteuropäischen Raum : mit einer Grammatik der Dialektvarianten [Romani-German-English dictionary for the Southern European region] (in German), Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, →ISBN, pages 242b-243a
  7. ^ Marcel Courthiade (2009), “i rat, -ǎ- ʒ. -ǎ, -ěn- = e rǎt, -ǎ- ʒ. -ǎ, -ěn- = e rǎt/ǐ, -ǎ- ʒ. -ǎ, -ěn-”, in Melinda Rézműves, editor, Morri angluni rromane ćhibǎqi evroputni lavustik = Első rromani nyelvű európai szótáram : cigány, magyar, angol, francia, spanyol, német, ukrán, román, horvát, szlovák, görög [My First European-Romani Dictionary: Romani, Hungarian, English, French, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Romanian, Croatian, Slovak, Greek] (in Hungarian; English), Budapest: Fővárosi Onkormányzat Cigány Ház--Romano Kher, →ISBN, page 303b

Romansch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Frankish *rato (rat).

Noun[edit]

rat m (plural rats)

  1. (Surmiran) rat

Synonyms[edit]


Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *ortь, from the o-grade of Proto-Indo-European *h₃er- (to rise, to attack), cognate to Ancient Greek ἔρις (éris, quarrel, strife), Sanskrit ऋति (ṛti, assault) and Proto-Germanic *ernustuz (struggle, fight)

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rȁt m (Cyrillic spelling ра̏т)

  1. war
    Samo idioti misle da rat r(j)ešava probleme.Only idiots think that war solves problems.

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]


Torres Strait Creole[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English rat.

Noun[edit]

rat

  1. rat or mouse

Synonyms[edit]


Volapük[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from English rat.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

rat (nominative plural rats)

  1. rat (rodent of the family Muridae)

Declension[edit]

Hypernyms[edit]

Hyponyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Westrobothnian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate to Icelandic hrat n.

Noun[edit]

rat n

  1. garbage, waste, in forest lying twigs, rotten trees and stumps
    Hä ligg fullt rat å gval i skogjen
    The forest is full of rubbish and waste.