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U+9F20, 鼠
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9F20

[U+9F1F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9F21]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
鼠-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 208, +0, 13 strokes, cangjie input 竹X女卜女 (HXVYV), four-corner 77717, composition⿲⿺𠄌⿺𠄌⺀(GJK) or ⿱⿲⿺𠄌𠄠⿺𠄌𠄠(HT))

  1. Kangxi radical #208, .

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1527, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 48390
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2063, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4772, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9F20

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
鼠-oracle.svg 鼠-seal.svg 鼠-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*hljaʔ
*hljaʔ

Pictogram (象形) – a mouse or rat. In the seal script form, which is inherited in the regular script, the upper component resembling represents the open mouth of a rat with teeth displayed, and the lower component represents the two feet of a rat on the left and a tail on the right.

Etymology[edit]

Unclear. Schuessler (2007) reconstructs the Minimal Old Chinese as *nhaʔ and compares to the following:

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • chhí/chhír/chhú - vernacular;
  • sú/sír/sí - literary;
  • chhú - literary (Taiwan).
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂu²¹⁴/
    Harbin /ʂu²¹³/
    Tianjin /ʂu¹³/
    /su¹³/
    Jinan /ʂu⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /ʃu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ʂu⁵³/
    Xi'an /fu⁵³/
    Xining /fv̩⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵³/
    /ʂu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /p͡fʰu⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ɕy⁴²/
    Chengdu /su⁵³/
    Guiyang /su⁴²/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵³/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹²/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /su⁵³/
    Pingyao /sz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Hohhot /su⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰz̩³⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰz̩ʷ⁵¹/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰz̩ʷ⁵³/
    Wenzhou /t͡sʰei³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰy³⁵/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕʰy³¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕy⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /ɕy⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕy²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰu³¹/
    Taoyuan /tʃʰu³¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sy³⁵/
    Nanning /sy³⁵/
    Hong Kong /sy³⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /su⁵³/
    /t͡sʰu⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰy³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰy²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰɯ⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /siu²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (26)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɕɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɕiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɕiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɕɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɕiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɕĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɕi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shǔ
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shǔ
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ syoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[l̥]aʔ/
    English rat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11801
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljaʔ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. rat; mouse; rodent
        ―  lǎoshǔ  ―  mouse, rat
    2. Rat (first of the Chinese zodiac signs)
      /   ―  Wǒ shǔ shǔ.  ―  My zodiac sign is the Rat.
    3. cowardly; timid
    4. (traditional Chinese medicine) scrofula; scrofulous
    5. (Cantonese) to sneak; to go stealthily

    Synonyms[edit]

    Dialectal synonyms of 老鼠 (“mouse; rat”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 老鼠
    Taxonomic name
    Mandarin Beijing 耗子
    Taiwan 老鼠
    Tianjin 耗子
    Harbin 老鼠耗子
    Shenyang 耗子
    Jinan 老鼠耗子
    Muping 老鼠耗子
    Luoyang 老鼠耗子
    Jiedian 老鼠
    Xi'an 老鼠
    Zhengzhou 老鼠
    Xining 老鼠
    Xuzhou 老鼠
    Yinchuan 老鼠
    Lanzhou 老鼠子
    Ürümqi 老鼠
    Wuhan 老鼠高大爹 dated, euphemistic客人 dated, euphemistic
    Chengdu 耗子
    Guiyang 耗子
    Liuzhou 老鼠耗子
    Kunming 老鼠
    Yangzhou 老鼠
    Nanjing 老鼠小耳朵
    Hefei 老鼠老鼠子
    Cantonese Guangzhou 老鼠
    Hong Kong 老鼠
    Shunde 老鼠
    Foshan 老鼠
    Zhongshan 老鼠
    Dongguan 老鼠
    Hong Kong (Weitou) 老鼠
    Taishan 老鼠
    Doumen 老鼠
    Kaiping 老鼠
    Shaoguan 老鼠
    Yunfu 老鼠
    Yangjiang 老鼠
    Xinyi 老鼠
    Lianjiang 老鼠
    Nanning 老鼠
    Kuala Lumpur 老鼠
    Gan Nanchang 老鼠財神 euphemistic
    Lichuan 老鼠
    Pingxiang 老鼠子老鼠
    Hakka Meixian 老鼠
    Yudu 老鼠
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 老鼠
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 老鼠
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 老鼠
    Dongshi (Dabu) 老鼠
    Zhuolan (Raoping) 老鼠
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 老鼠
    Hong Kong 老鼠
    Sabah 老鼠
    Senai 老鼠
    Singkawang 老鼠
    Huizhou Jixi 老鼠
    Shexian 老鼠
    Tunxi 老鼠
    Jin Taiyuan 老鼠𪕸兒耗子
    Pingyao 𪕸兒
    Xinzhou 𪕸兒耗子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 老鼠
    Min Dong Fuzhou 老鼠尖尖喙 euphemistic
    Fuqing 老鼠
    Min Nan Xiamen 鳥鼠
    Quanzhou 老鼠
    Zhangzhou 鳥鼠
    Taipei 鳥鼠
    Kaohsiung 鳥鼠
    Tainan 鳥鼠仔鳥鼠
    Taichung 鳥鼠
    Wuqi 鳥鼠
    Hsinchu 鳥鼠
    Taitung 鳥鼠
    Lukang 鳥鼠
    Sanxia 鳥鼠
    Yilan 鳥鼠鳥鼠仔
    Kinmen 鳥鼠
    Magong 鳥鼠
    Penang 鳥鼠
    Singapore 鳥鼠
    Philippines (Manila) 老鼠
    Pingnan 老鼠
    Chaozhou 貓鼠
    Shantou 貓鼠
    Haifeng 貓鼠
    Johor Bahru 貓鼠
    Haikou 貓鼠
    Pinghua Nanning 老鼠
    Wu Suzhou 老蟲老鼠夜裡大人 humorous
    Hangzhou 老鼠
    Wenzhou 老鼠
    Chongming 老鼠老蟲
    Danyang 老鼠
    Jinhua 老鼠
    Ningbo 老鼠
    Xiang Changsha 老鼠子高客 dated, euphemistic高客子 dated, euphemistic
    Shuangfeng 老鼠子高客 euphemistic
    Loudi 老鼠子
    Quanzhou 老鼠

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. mouse, rat, other similar rodent

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    (nezumi): a mouse, as a smaller example of a nezumi.
    (nezumi): a rat, as a larger example of a nezumi.
    (nezumi): a member of family Muroidea: a common vole.
     
    (nezumi)鼠色 (nezumi-iro, literally “mouse color”): the color grey.
    Kanji in this term
    ねずみ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Originally a compound of (ne, root, more specifically signifying somewhere hidden away) +‎ 住み (sumi, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 住む sumu, “to live in a place, to reside”), meaning roughly “one who lives in hidden places”. The sumi changes to zumi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ねずみ, katakana ネズミ, rōmaji nezumi)

    1. a mouse or a rat
      • 1993 November 15 [Aug 25 1989], “どうぶつのおしゃさん とうじょうじんぶつしょうかい [○ The Veterinarian: Character Intro]”, in 動物のお医者さん [The Veterinarian], volume 2 (fiction, in Japanese), 44th edition, Tokyo: Hakusensha, →ISBN, page 7:
         () (かい) (どう):ハムテルの (ゆう) (じん) (じゅう) () (たまご)。だがネズミ (こわ)いという (じゃく) (てん)がある。
        Nikaidō: Hamuteru no yūjin de jūi no tamago. Daga nezumi ni kowai to iu jakuten ga aru.
        Nikaidō: Hamuteru’s friend, who’s also a future veterinarian. One of his weaknesses, however, is being frightened of rats and mice.
      • 1999 May 25, “イビル・ラット [Evil Rat]”, in Booster 2 (in Japanese), Konami:
        どんな (もの)にでもかじりつく、 (ぎょう) () (わる) ()ネズミ
        Donna mono ni demo kajiritsuku, gyōgi no warui nonezumi.
        A feral rat evil-doer that can bite through anything.
      • 1999 September 23, “よろいネズミ [Armored Rat]”, in Vol.5 (in Japanese), Konami:
         (よろい)のようにかたい () (からだ) (まも)ることができるネズミ
        Yoroi no yō ni katai ke de karada o mamoru koto ga dekiru nezumi.
        A rat capable of defending itself with a coat that functions as armor.
      • 2007 November 20 [Mar 25 2006], Fujiko F. Fujio, “「スパルタしきにがこくふくじょう」と「にがタッチバトン」 [“Extreme Conquer-Your-Weakness Pill” and “Weakness Touch Baton”]”, in ドラえもんプラス [Doraemon+], volume 5 (fiction, in Japanese), 4th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 11–12:
        ごめんください。
        Gomen kudasai.
        May I come in?
        ネズミ (どし) (ひと)ですか?
        Nezumidoshi no hito desu ka?
        Were you born in a Rat year?
        サル (どし)ですが。
        Sarudoshi desu ga.
        I was born in a Monkey year.
        じゃ おはいりください。
        Ja ohairi kudasai.
        Please come in then.
        わたくし、 () (ずみ)ともうします。
        Watakushi, Nezumi to mōshimasu.
        But my name is Nezumi.
    2. general term for members of superfamily Muroidea, including mice, rats, voles, hamsters, gerbils, and other similar rodents
    3. short for 鼠色 (nezumi iro): the colour grey, sometimes more specifically a dark grey colour
    Usage notes[edit]

    Japanese does not generally distinguish between mice and rats, and both are commonly called nezumi. If a distinction is needed, speakers may use the adjectives 大きい (ōkii, large) or 小さい (chīsai, small), or may use the word マウス (mausu, mouse, borrowed from either German or English).

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as ネズミ.

    Note that, although the Japanese term 子年 (​nezumidoshi, ​nedoshi) for The Year of the Rat in the Chinese zodiac does derive from this same nezumi term, it is not written with this kanji.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ねず
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Abbreviation of nezumi. Used in some compounds.[3][1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ねず, rōmaji nezu)

    1. a mouse, a rat
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    Abbreviation of nezumi. Used in some compounds.[3][1]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • Kun’yomi
    • The pitch accent is determined by the entire compounded term.

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji ne)

    1. a mouse, a rat
    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (jwi seo))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Okinawan[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From (っゑ, qwe, parent) +‎ (n, reduced genitive particle) +‎ -人 (ちゅ, chu, person)

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana っゑんちゅ, romaji 'wenchu, hiragana ゑんちゅ, romaji wenchu, hiragana えんちゅ, romaji enchu)

    1. mouse, rat

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (thử)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.