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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai N.png
U+3093, ん
HIRAGANA LETTER N

[U+3092]
Hiragana
[U+3094]

Japanese[edit]

Stroke order
1 stroke

Pronunciation[edit]

  • The realization of this phoneme depends on its phonetic context, as follows:

Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style. and were originally both used for both the n and mu sounds; was designated as n in the script reform.

Syllable[edit]

(romaji n)

  1. The hiragana syllable (n). Its equivalent in katakana is (n). It is the forty-eighth syllable in the gojūon order.
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

/nu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the negative ending (nu).

Suffix[edit]

(rōmaji -n)

  1. (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): negative form of verbs
    • 北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』
      あるといえばあるが、しかし、ほんとうのことはわから[1]
      Aru to ieba aru ga, shikashi, hontō no koto wa wakaran.
      There is, to be sure, but, I don't know the facts.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The negative usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (nu), and this is mainly used in western Japanese dialects.
    • Since ない is adopted as a standard form for the negative suffix in modern Japanese, gives a dialectal or very casual impression compared to ない today.
    • On the other hand, is common in fictional dialogue attributed to archaic or pompous characters.

Synonyms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

/mu//n/, /ŋ/

An abbreviation of the intentional, volitional, and suppositional ending (mu).

Suffix[edit]

(rōmaji -n)

  1. (after the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of a verb): volitional form of verbs
    • 北大路魯山人, 『味覚馬鹿』
      高級食器 (こうきゅうしょっき)美器 (びき)をつくらとするものは、美食 (びしょく) (つう)ずべし。[2]
      Kōkyū shokki, biki o tsukuran to suru mono wa, bishoku ni tsūzu beshi.
      He who tries to make high-class tableware and beauty ware, must be familiar with epicurism.
Usage notes[edit]
  • The volitional usage of (-n) is a colloquial form of (mu), and this is usually used to impart a literary style in modern Japanese.
  • In modern Japanese, this is more commonly realized as the or -yō volitional verb ending, derived by abbreviation of the /m/:
    • For type 1 or godan verbs: /-amu//-au//-ɔː//-oː/
    • For type 2 or 3 ichidan verbs with stems ending in /-i/: /-Cimu/ invalid IPA characters (C)/-Ciu/ invalid IPA characters (C)/-Cʲoː/ invalid IPA characters (C)/-Cijoː/ invalid IPA characters (C)
    • For type 2 or 3 ichidan verbs with stems ending in /-e/: /-Cemu/ invalid IPA characters (C)/-Ceu/ invalid IPA characters (C)/-Cʲoː/ invalid IPA characters (C)/-Cejoː/ invalid IPA characters (C)
      • /C/ invalid IPA characters (C) above indicates the last consonant in the verb stem, such as the /m/ in /mi/, the verb stem for 見る (miru, to see), or the /b/ in /tabe/, the verb stem for 食べる (taberu, to eat).

Etymology 4[edit]

/no//n/, /ŋ/.

An abbreviation of (no).

Suffix[edit]

(rōmaji -n)

  1. Synonym of (no).
    あの、 ()きたいことがあるだけど。
    Ano, kikitai koto ga aru n da kedo.
    Excuse me, I have a question I would like to ask.
     (おれ) () ()ない?
    Ore n chi ni konai?
    Wanna come to my place?
    • 甲賀三郎, 『蜘蛛』
      「とたてぐもの一種 (いっしゅ)だよ。潮見君 (しおみくん)毒蜘蛛 (どくぐも)間違 (まちが)えただよ」[3]
      “Totategumo no isshu na n da yo. Shiomi-kun wa dokugumo to machigaeta n da yo”
      "It's a type of trapdoor spider. You've mistaken it for a venomous spider."

Etymology 5[edit]

/r-//r//n/, /ŋ/.

Suffix[edit]

(rōmaji -n)

  1. Synonym of (ra).
     (いえ) (かえ)んなきゃ。
    Ie ni kaennakya.
    I must go home.
  2. Synonym of (ru).
     (なに)してんの?
    Nani shiten no?
    What'cha doin'?
  3. Synonym of (re).
     (しん)じらんない。
    Shinjirannai.
    I can't believe it.
     (なみだ) ()まんない
    namida ga tomannai
    the tears won't stop
    そんで
    sonde
    and so