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Japanese Hiragana kyokashotai MO.png
U+3082, も



Stroke order
3 strokes


Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.


(romaji mo)

  1. The hiragana syllable (mo). Its equivalent in katakana is (mo). It is the thirty-fifth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (ma-gyō o-dan, row ma, section o).
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

⟨mo2 → */mə//mo/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *mə. Appears in common use in the Kojiki (712 CE), with the only attested distinction between ⟨mo1 and ⟨mo2. Compare Middle Chinese (MC məuX).

Distinct from ⟨mo1 terms such as (⟨kumo1 → kumo, cloud) and (⟨simo1 → shimo, lower, end); pronounced closely to Middle Chinese (MC mɑu, mɑuH).

This distinction was lost in a later ancient Japanese chronicle, the Nihon Shoki (720 CE), and ⟨mo1 and ⟨mo2 were merged to form one syllable mo. See the Man'yōgana and Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai articles for more detail on ancient spellings.


(rōmaji mo)

  1. too, also, as well
    田中 (たなか)さんはビール ()でいる。スミスさん ()んでいる。
    Tanaka-san wa bīru o nondeiru. Sumisu-san mo nondeiru.
    Tanaka is drinking beer. Smith is also drinking.
    本日 (ほんじつ)来店 (らいてん)くださいまして、ありがとうございます
    Honjitsu mo go-raiten kudasaimashite, arigatō gozaimasu.
    Thank you for visiting our store today as well [as other days].
    Watashi ni mo kureta.
    [She] gave some to me, too.
  2. not even (with negative statements)
     (はこ) (なか)には (なに)なかった。
    Hako no naka ni wa nani mo nakatta.
    The box was empty.
    (literally, “Inside the box, even something was not there.”)
    • 2011, sasakure.UK (lyrics), “ガラクタ姫とアポストロフ”‎[1]:
      だれあいされないものって なんだ?”
      “だれにあいされない ひとりぼっち
      “dare ni mo aisarenai mono tte nanda? ”
      “dare ni mo aisarenai hitoribotchi”
      “What is a person who is loved by no one?”
      “Loved by no one: alone.”
      (literally, ““What is a person who is not loved by even someone?”
      “Not loved by even someone: alone.””)
  3. Inserted between (te) and a negative suffix for emphasis.
    まさか () () ()とは (おも)ってませんでした。
    Masaka jiko ni au to wa omotte mo imasen deshita.
    Never in my wildest dreams would I have imagined that I would be in an accident.
Usage notes[edit]
  • (mo) always replaces (wa), (o) and (ga), but may follow other particles.
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

The Eastern Old Japanese variant of (-mu),[1] attested in poems of the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).


(rōmaji -mo)

  1. (regional, jodōshi, obsolete) Used to form the conjectural form of verbs, equivalent to modern (-u) / よう (-yō).
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3418), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (かみつ) () () () () () (なへ)群苗 (むらなへ) (こと) (さだ)めつ (いま)はいかにせ [Modern spelling]
      Kamitsukeno Sanoda-no-nae no muranae ni koto ni sadametsu ima wa ika ni semo
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4418), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       () (かど)片山 (かたやま)椿 (つばき)まこと () () () ()なな (つち) ()かも [Modern spelling]
      waga kado no katayama tsubaki makoto nare waga te furenana tsuchi ni ochimo ka mo
      (please add an English translation of this example)

Etymology 4[edit]

Readings of various kanji.


(rōmaji mo)

  1. : This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  2. : mourning
  3. : This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  4. : algae
  5. : This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.


  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN