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See also:
U+79C1, 私
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-79C1

[U+79C0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+79C2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 115, +2, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹木戈 (HDI), four-corner 22930, composition )

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 849, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24913
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1271, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2589, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+79C1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
2nd round simp.
alternative forms ancient

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sil) : semantic (grain) + phonetic (OC *sil) – private grain or field.

Displaced the original form .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sai - vernacular;
  • sir/su - literary.
Note:
  • se1 - literary;
  • sai1 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (15)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sij
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪ/
Pan
Wuyun
/si/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjɪ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/si/
Li
Rong
/si/
Wang
Li
/si/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
si1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ sij ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]əj/
English private

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11949
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sil/

Definitions[edit]

  1. self; personal; private
      ―  rén  ―  personal
      ―  yǒu  ―  private
  2. selfish
      ―    ―  selfish
  3. (Can we add an example for this sense?) (Classical, humble) first-person singular pronoun: I; me
  4. illegal or secret goods
      ―  zǒu  ―  to smuggle
  5. stealthily; secretly
      ―    ―  to whisper
  6. (obsolete) Used by women to refer to their sister's husband
  7. reproductive organs; genitals
  8. (Internet slang) Short for 私聊 (sīliáo, “to PM, to DM”).

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (shi)
  • Korean: 사(私) (sa)
  • Vietnamese: ()

Compounds[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
わたし
Grade: 6
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
和多志 (neologism)

Shift from watakushi below.[1][2]

This reading was already prevalent in early modern times, possibly around the mid-late Muromachi to early-Edo period.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(わたし) (watashi

  1. (polite) first-person singular pronoun: I, me
    (わたし)はイギリス(じん)です。
    Watashi wa Igirisu-jin desu.
    I am British.
Usage notes[edit]

Watashi is the usual polite term for referring to oneself.

Quotations[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:私.

Coordinate terms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
わたくし
Grade: 6
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese (watakusi).

A surface analysis suggests a compound term. However, no likely etyma are known.

  • From first-person pronoun (wa, I, me) + takusi: although the first element seems likely, the original meaning of watakushi was “private”, as opposed to “public”, with no first-person pronoun usage until the late 13th century.
  • From wata + kusi: the only phonetic matches are 綿 (wata, cotton; cotton batting), (wata, guts, one's innards, likely derived from the “batting” sense), (wata, sea, ocean) + (kusi, skewer), 奇し (kusi, magic, fantastic, supernatural, adjective), (kusi, alcoholic beverage, likely derived from the “magic” sense), (kusi, comb).
  • From wataku + si: no such word wataku appears to exist.
  • From wa + ta + ku + si: unknown.

The meaning evolved over time from “private” or “privatization”, to refer to things that are personal, to refer to one's own person, and then finally to serve as a generic first-person pronoun. The full form watakushi is still used in modern Japanese as a formal, highly polite first-person pronoun. The abbreviated form watashi is now the most common and neutrally polite first-person pronoun.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(わたくし) (watakushi

  1. a personal or private matter
  2. (by extension) selfishness
    Synonyms: 自分勝手 (jibun katte), 私利私欲 (shiri shiyoku)
Derived terms[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

(わたくし) (watakushi

  1. (formal) first-person singular pronoun: I, me
Usage notes[edit]

Watakushi is the formal term, only used in certain circumstances, such as by TV announcers or public figures such as politicians. Conversely, it is too formal for casual conversation for men, where terms like (ore) are preferred.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 6
on’yomi

/si//ɕi/

From Middle Chinese (MC sij).

Affix[edit]

() (shi

  1. personal, private
  2. secret
Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (shi

  1. a personal or private matter
  2. selfishness
  3. privacy, secrecy
  4. (women's speech, obsolete) a brother-in-law
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
あたし
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あたし
[pronoun] (chiefly women's speech) first person singular pronoun: I, me
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
あたくし
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あたくし
[pronoun] more polite form of あたし (atashi)
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 6[edit]

Kanji in this term
あっし
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あっし
[pronoun] [from 1908] first person singular pronoun: I, me
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 7[edit]

Kanji in this term
あし
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry: あし

(The following entry is uncreated: あし.)

Etymology 8[edit]

Kanji in this term
あたい
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あたい
[pronoun] (informal) first-person pronoun: I, me
[pronoun] (Kagoshima, dialect) first-person pronoun: I, me
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 9[edit]

Kanji in this term
あて
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
あて
[pronoun] (Kansai, feminine, dated) I; me
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 10[edit]

Kanji in this term
わい
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
わい
[pronoun] (dialect, Kansai, Kagoshima; or Internet slang) I, me (first-person pronoun, mainly used by males)
[pronoun] you (second-person pronoun, used when addressing an equal or inferior)
[particle] (dated or dialectal) A particle used in the end of sentences to indicate admiration or emotion. Slightly stronger than (wa).
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 11[edit]

Kanji in this term
わし
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
わしH
[pronoun] (mainly Western Japan) I, me
(This term, , is an alternative spelling (more common) of the above term.)


Etymology 12[edit]

Kanji in this term
わっし
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
わっし
[pronoun] (colloquial) first-person singular pronoun: I, me
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 13[edit]

Kanji in this term
わっち
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
わっち
[pronoun] : (now dialectal) first-person singular pronoun
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)


Etymology 14[edit]

Kanji in this term
わたい
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry: わたい

(The following entry is uncreated: わたい.)

Etymology 15[edit]

Kanji in this term
わちき
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry: わちき

(The following entry is uncreated: わちき.)

Etymology 16[edit]

Kanji in this term
わて
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry: わて

(The following entry is uncreated: わて.)

Etymology 17[edit]

Kanji in this term
わらわ
Grade: 6
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
わらわ
[pronoun] (archaic, women's speech, humble) I; me
[pronoun] (Can we verify(+) this sense?) (modern fiction, women's speech) I; me (used by haughty women of the highest classes of society); usually accompanied by archaic speech styles
Alternative spelling
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 (in Japanese), First edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 사사 (sasa sa))

  1. Hanja form? of (private, personal).

Old Japanese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “Cognate with first person singular pronoun (wa)?”

Noun[edit]

(watakusi) (kana わたくし)

  1. a personal or private matter

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Japanese: (watakushi, watashi)

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Nôm readings: , tây

  1. private, personal