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See also:
U+79C1, 私
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-79C1

[U+79C0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+79C2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 115, +2, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹木戈 (HDI), four-corner 22930, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 849, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24913
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1271, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2589, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+79C1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ancient and 2nd round simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sil): semantic  (grain) + phonetic  (OC *sil) – private grain or field.

Displaced the original form .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sai - vernacular;
  • sir/su - literary.
Note:
  • se1 - literary;
  • sai1 - vernacular.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siɪ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /si/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sjɪ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /si/
    Li
    Rong
    /si/
    Wang
    Li
    /si/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sij ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[s]əj/
    English private

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11949
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sil/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. self; personal; private
        ―  rén  ―  personal
        ―  yǒu  ―  private
    2. selfish
        ―    ―  selfish
    3. (Classical Chinese, humble) first-person singular pronoun: I; me
    4. illegal or secret goods
        ―  zǒu  ―  to smuggle
    5. stealthily; secretly
        ―    ―  to whisper
    6. (Internet slang) to PM, to DM (from 私聊)

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (shi)
    • Korean: (, sa)
    • Vietnamese: ()

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わたし
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Shift from watakushi below.[1][2]

    This reading was already prevalent in early modern times, possibly around the mid-late Muromachi to early-Edo period.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (わたし) (watashi

    1. (polite) first-person singular pronoun: I, me
      (わたし)はイギリス(じん)です。
      Watashi wa Igirisu-jin desu.
      I am British.
    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:私.

    Usage notes[edit]

    Watashi is the usual polite term for referring to oneself.

    Derived terms[edit]
    Coordinate terms[edit]
    See also[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わたくし
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese (watakusi).

    A surface analysis suggests a compound term. However, no likely etyma are known.

    • From first-person pronoun (wa, I, me) + takusi: although the first element seems likely, the original meaning of watakushi was “private”, as opposed to “public”, with no first-person pronoun usage until the late 13th century.
    • From wata + kusi: the only phonetic matches are 綿 (wata, cotton; cotton batting), (wata, guts, one's innards, likely derived from the “batting” sense), (wata, sea, ocean) + (kusi, skewer), 奇し (kusi, magic, fantastic, supernatural, adjective), (kusi, alcoholic beverage, likely derived from the “magic” sense), (kusi, comb).
    • From wataku + si: no such word wataku appears to exist.

    The meaning evolved over time from “private” or “privatization”, to refer to things that are personal, to refer to one's own person, and then finally to serve as a generic first-person pronoun. The full form watakushi is still used in modern Japanese as a formal, highly polite first-person pronoun. The abbreviated form watashi is now the most common and neutrally polite first-person pronoun.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (わたくし) (watakushi

    1. a personal or private matter
    2. (by extension) selfishness
      Synonyms: 自分勝手 (jibun katte), 私利私欲 (shiri shiyoku)
    Derived terms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (わたくし) (watakushi

    1. (formal) first-person singular pronoun: I, me
    Usage notes[edit]

    Watakushi is the formal term, only used in certain circumstances, such as by TV announcers or public figures such as politicians. Conversely, it is too formal for casual conversation for men, where terms like (ore) are preferred.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 6
    on’yomi

    /si//ɕi/

    From Middle Chinese (MC siɪ).

    Affix[edit]

    () (shi

    1. personal, private
    2. secret
    Derived terms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    () (shi

    1. a personal or private matter
    2. selfishness
    3. privacy, secrecy
    4. (women's speech, obsolete) a brother-in-law
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あたし
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あたし
    [pronoun] (women's speech) first person singular pronoun: I, me
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 5[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あたくし
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あたくし
    [pronoun] more polite form of あたし (atashi)
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 6[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あっし
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あっし
    [pronoun] first person singular pronoun: I, me
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 7[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あし
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see あし.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: あし.)

    Etymology 8[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あたい
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    あたい
    [pronoun] (informal) first-person pronoun: I, me
    [pronoun] (Kagoshima, dialect) first-person pronoun: I, me
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 9[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あて
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see あて.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: あて.)

    Etymology 10[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わい
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    わい
    [pronoun] (dialect, Kansai, Kagoshima) I, me (first-person pronoun, mainly used by males)
    [pronoun] you (second-person pronoun, used when addressing an equal or inferior)
    [particle] (dated) A particle used in the end of sentences to indicate admiration or emotion. Slightly stronger than (wa).
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Etymology 11[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わし
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: .)

    Etymology 12[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わっし
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see わっし.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: わっし.)

    Etymology 13[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わっち
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see わっち.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: わっち.)

    Etymology 14[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わたい
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see わたい.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: わたい.)

    Etymology 15[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わちき
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see わちき.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: わちき.)

    Etymology 16[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わて
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see わて.
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

    (The following entry is uncreated: わて.)

    Etymology 17[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わらわ
    Grade: 6
    Irregular
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    わらわ
    [pronoun] (archaic) I; me (used by females to show modesty)
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (sa) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer sa, Yale sa)

    1. private, personal

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “Cognate with first person singular pronoun (wa)?”

    Noun[edit]

    (watakusi) (kana わたくし)

    1. a personal or private matter

    Derived terms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (watakushi, watashi)

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (, tây)

    1. private, personal