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See also:
U+79C1, 私
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-79C1

[U+79C0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+79C2]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
7 strokes

Han character[edit]

(radical 115, +2, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹木戈 (HDI), four-corner 22930, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 849, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 24913
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1271, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2589, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+79C1

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
variant forms ancient and 2nd round simp.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sil
*sil

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sil): semantic  (grain) + phonetic  (OC *sil) – private grain or field.

Displaced the original form .

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • sai - vernacular;
  • sir/su - literary.
Note:
  • se1 - literary;
  • sai1 - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siɪ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /si/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sjɪ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /si/
    Li
    Rong
    /si/
    Wang
    Li
    /si/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sij ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[s]əj/
    English private

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11949
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sil/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. self; personal; private
        ―  rén  ―  personal
        ―  yǒu  ―  private
    2. selfish
        ―    ―  selfish

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. private, personal
    2. secret
    3. I, me

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わたし
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Shift from watakushi (see below).[1][2]

    This spelling was already prevalent in early modern times, possibly around the mid-late Muromachi to early-Edo period.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana わたし, rōmaji watashi)

    1. (polite) first-person pronoun: I, me
       (わたし)はイギリス (じん)です。
      Watashi wa Igirisu-jin desu.
      I'm English.
      • 太宰治, 走れメロス
         (わたし)だ、 (けい) ()!  (ころ)されるのは、 (わたし)だ。メロスだ。 (かれ)人質 (ひとじち)にした (わたし)は、ここにいる!」と、かすれた (こえ) (せい) (いっ)ぱいに (さけ)びながら、ついに磔台 (はりつけだい) (のぼ)り、 () ()げられてゆく (とも)両足 (りょうあし)に、 (かじ)りついた。[1]
        Watashi da, keiri! Korosareru no wa, watashi da. Merosu da. Kare o hitojichi ni shita watashi wa, koko ni iru!” to, kasureta koe de seiippai ni sakebinagara, tsui ni haritsukedai ni nobori, tsuriagerareteyuku tomo no ryōashi ni, kajiritsuita.
        "It's me, executioner! The one who shall be killed is me. Melos. The me who held him hostage is here!" Shouting in a hoarse voice with all his strength, he grabbed the legs of his friend who was already hoisted onto the cross.
      • 2016, Ryunosuke Kamiki as Mitsuha Miyamizu, 君の名は。 [your name.] (in Japanese), written by Makoto Shinkai:
         (まえ)さあ、どうやったら (つう) (がく) (みち) (まよ)えんだよ?
        Omae sā, dō yattara tsūgaku de michi ni mayoen da yo?
        How did you get lost on your way to school?
        あぁ…えっと… (わたし)
        Ā… Etto… Watashi
        Um… Well… I
    Usage notes[edit]

    Watashi is the usual polite term for referring to oneself.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わたくし
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi
    EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana わたくし, rōmaji watakushi)

    1. a personal matter
    2. selfishness
      Synonyms: 自分勝手 (jibun katte), 私利私欲 (shiri shiyoku)
    3. a private matter
    Derived terms[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana わたくし, rōmaji watakushi)

    1. (formal) first-person pronoun: I, me
    Usage notes[edit]

    Watakushi is the formal term, only used in certain circumstances, such as by TV announcers or public figures such as politicians. Conversely, it is too formal for casual conversation for men, where terms like (ore) are preferred.

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    あたし
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    Shift from watashi (see above).[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana あたし, katakana アタシ, rōmaji atashi)

    1. (colloquial) first-person pronoun: I, me
    Usage notes[edit]

    Generally only used by women when referring to themselves.

    Etymology 4[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    わらわ
    Grade: 6
    kun’yomi

    From (warawa, young child, especially one who does errands).

    Pronoun[edit]

    (hiragana わらわ, rōmaji warawa, historical hiragana わらは)

    1. Alternative spelling of (warawa): first-person pronoun: I, me

    Coordinate terms[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (sa) (hangeul , McCune–Reischauer sa, Yale sa)

    1. private, personal

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (, tây)

    1. private, personal