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Translingual[edit]

shinjitai

simplified

traditional

Etymology[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hmlɯːʔ): semantic  ‎(water) + phonetic  ‎(OC *mɯːʔ)

The Old Chinese word is believed to have been pronounced very much like 每, with an m- initial. Baxter-Sagart reconstruct the Old Chinese as *m̥ˤəʔ; compare with 每 *mˤəʔ.

Appears with (2 dots) in Chinese, yielding , but with simplified form (1 cross stroke) in Japanese shinjitai, yielding = 氵 + . These are however encoded with the same Unicode character – see Han unification.

Stroke order

Han character[edit]

(radical 85 +7 in Chinese, 水+6 in Japanese, in Chinese 10 strokes, in Japanese 9 strokes, cangjie input 水人田卜 (EOWY), four-corner 38157, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 625, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1023, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1627, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6D77

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xai²¹⁴/
Harbin /xai²¹³/
Tianjin /xai¹³/
Jinan /xɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /xɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /xai⁵³/
Xi'an /xai⁵³/
Xining /xɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /xɛ⁵³/
Lanzhou /xɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /xai⁵¹/
Wuhan /xai⁴²/
Chengdu /xai⁵³/
Guiyang /xai⁴²/
Kunming /xæ⁵³/
Nanjing /xae²¹²/
Hefei /xe̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /xai⁵³/
Pingyao /xæ⁵³/
Hohhot /xɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /he³⁵/
Suzhou /he̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /he̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /he³⁵/
Hui Shexian /xɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /xuə³¹/
Xiang Changsha /xai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /xai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /hai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hoi³¹/
Taoyuan /hoi³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔi³⁵/
Nanning /hɔi³⁵/
Hong Kong /hɔi³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hai³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuɛ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hai⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hai²¹³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (32)
Final: (41)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: hǎi
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/hʌiX/ /həiX/ /xɒiX/ /həjX/ /xᴀiX/ /xɒiX/ /xɑ̆iX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
hǎi ‹ xojX › /*m̥ˤəʔ (dialect *m̥ˤ- > x-)/ sea

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9283 0 /*hmlɯːʔ/

Noun[edit]

  1. sea, ocean

Proper noun[edit]

  1. A surname​. Hai (mainland China, Taiwan), Hoi (Hong Kong)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

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Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. sea
  2. ocean

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
うみ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

May derive from a compound of ‎(u, stem indicating “ocean”; compare ‎(uo, fish), ‎(ushio, salt water)) + ‎(mi, water).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana うみ, romaji umi)

  1. sea, ocean
Usage notes[edit]

This is the most common general term in modern Japanese for sea or ocean.

Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
わた
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

May be related to Goguryeo 波旦 ‎(padan). Possibly cognate with Korean 바다 ‎(bada, ocean, sea).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana わた, romaji wata)

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Either cognate with ‎(mi, water), or an abbreviation of umi above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji mi)

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(hae) (hangeul , revised hae, McCune-Reischauer hae, Yale hay)

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Compounds[edit]


Mulam[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hai3)

  1. sea

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(hải, hẩy, hấy)

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