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U+6D77, 海
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6D77

[U+6D76]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6D78]

U+FA45, 海
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA45

[U+FA44]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA46]
海 U+2F901, 海
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F901
派
[U+2F900]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 流
[U+2F902]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional
Stroke order
10 strokes

Alternative forms[edit]

In Chinese, the bottom right component is with 2 dots, yielding . In Japanese shinjitai, this component is simplified to (1 cross stroke), yielding (+). Both forms are encoded under the same Unicode codepoint – see Han unification.

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 85, +7 in Chinese and Korean, 水+6 in Japanese, 10 strokes in Chinese and Korean, 9 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 水人田卜 (EOWY) or 水人田十 (EOWJ), four-corner 38157, composition (GHTKV or U+FA45) or (J or U+2F901))

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 625, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1023, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1627, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6D77

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *hmlɯːʔ) : semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *mɯːʔ).

Etymology[edit]

Probably related to (OC *hmɯːs, “dark”); in numerous Zhou texts is described as (Schuessler, 2007). Compare the parallelism in Chinese: (OC *meːŋ, *meːŋʔ, “ocean”) < (OC *meːŋ, “dark”).

STEDT compares (OC *hmlɯːʔ) to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *muːŋ ~ r/s-muːk (foggy; dark; sullen; menacing; thunder).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xai²¹⁴/
Harbin /xai²¹³/
Tianjin /xai¹³/
Jinan /xɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /xɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /xai⁵³/
Xi'an /xai⁵³/
Xining /xɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /xɛ⁵³/
Lanzhou /xɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /xai⁵¹/
Wuhan /xai⁴²/
Chengdu /xai⁵³/
Guiyang /xai⁴²/
Kunming /xæ⁵³/
Nanjing /xae²¹²/
Hefei /xe̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /xai⁵³/
Pingyao /xæ⁵³/
Hohhot /xɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /he³⁵/
Suzhou /he̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /he̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /he³⁵/
Hui Shexian /xɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /xuə³¹/
Xiang Changsha /xai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /xai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /hai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hoi³¹/
Taoyuan /hoi³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔi³⁵/
Nanning /hɔi³⁵/
Hong Kong /hɔi³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /hai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /hai³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xuɛ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /hai⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /hai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter xojX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hʌiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/həiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɒiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/həjX/
Li
Rong
/xᴀiX/
Wang
Li
/xɒiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑ̆iX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hǎi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hoi2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hǎi
Middle
Chinese
‹ xojX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥ˁəʔ/ (dialect *m̥ˁ- > x-)
English sea

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9283
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmlɯːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. sea; ocean
      ―  Hǎo xiǎng qù kàn hǎi.  ―  I really want to go and look at the sea.
  2. big lake
      ―  Ěrhǎi  ―  Er Lake
  3. (Cantonese) wide river
  4. (of containers, amount, etc.) big; large
      ―  hǎiwǎn  ―  extra large bowl
      ―  hǎiliàng  ―  huge amount
      ―  hǎi tóu  ―  to send résumés to many companies; to use shotgun approach in job hunting
      ―  hǎi biǎn  ―  (slang) to beat someone tremendously
    咪咪  ―  hǎi mīmī  ―  (slang) big boobs
  5. overseas; abroad
      ―  hǎizǎo  ―  date palm
  6. (figurative) sea; abundance; infiniteness
      ―  rénhǎi  ―  huge crowd
      ―  huǒhǎi  ―  sea of flames
  7. (dialectal, colloquial) profuse; numerous
  8. (dialectal, colloquial) unrestrainedly; randomly; casually
  9. a surname. Hai (mainland China, Taiwan), Hoi (Hong Kong)
      ―  Hǎi Ruì  ―  Hai Rui (Chinese scholar-official of the Ming dynasty)

Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (かい) (kai)
  • Korean: 해(海) (hae)
  • Vietnamese: hải ()

Others:

References[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1]


&#xFA45;
or
+&#xFE00;?
海󠄀
+&#xE0100;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
海󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. sea, ocean
  2. vastly gathered
  3. large, wide

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
うみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

⟨umi1 → */umij//umi/

From Old Japanese, theorized as descending from Proto-Japonic *omi.

Has been thought to have been derived from a compound. There are two leading theories regarding the ultimate derivation:

This is problematic phonetically because there is no known term having a related shift from /opo//oː//o//u/, and semantically as there already exists a compound 大水 (ōmizu, flood).
  • From (u-, stem indicating “ocean) + (mi, water, combining form). The u- stem is evident in (uo, fish) and (ushio, salt water; tide), and in the (una) element in various ancient terms (see below).[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(うみ) (umi

  1. a sea, an ocean
    Antonym: (oka, riku)
    (うみ)(なか)にはいろんな()(もの)()らしています。
    Umi no naka ni wa ironna ikimono ga kurashiteimasu.
    There are all sorts of creatures living in the sea.
    (うみ)()こう
    Umi ni ikō yo!
    Let's go to the beach!
  2. a lake
    Synonym: (mizuumi)
  3. (figurative) an object covering over a large area, as in 血の海 (chi no umi, pool of blood) or 火の海 (hi no umi, sea of fire)
  4. (planetology) a mare (dark surface of a celestial body, thought to appear like a sea)
  5. (calligraphy) in a (suzuri, inkstone), a reservoir where water is stored
    Synonym: (ike)
Usage notes[edit]
  • This is the most common general term in modern Japanese for sea or ocean.
Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(うみ) (Umi

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
うな
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Old Japanese. Thought to be comprised of (u-, stem indicating “ocean) + (na, ancient alternative form of the possessive particle (no)).[6] The u- stem is also evident in (uo, fish) and (ushio, salt water; tide).

First cited to the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[6]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(うな) (una-

  1. of the sea, of the ocean
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
わた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Old Japanese.

Probably related to Korean 바다 (bada, ocean, sea); perhaps an ancient Koreanic borrowing into Japanese.

Also read as wada.[7]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(わた) (wata

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

Either cognate with (mi, water), or an abbreviation of umi above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (mi

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
かい
Grade: 2
on’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC xojX).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(かい) (kai

  1. sea; ocean

References[edit]

  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015–2024
  2. ^ ”, in 日本大百科全書:ニッポニカ (Nippon Dai Hyakka Zensho: Nipponica, Encyclopedia Nipponica)[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 1984
  3. ^ 海/うみ”, in 語源由来辞典 (Gogen Yurai Jiten, Etymology Derivation Dictionary) (in Japanese), 2003–2024.
  4. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  5. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 わた 【海】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten) Paid subscription required[3] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC xojX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄒᆡᆼ〯 (Yale: hǒy)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[5] 바다〮 (Yale: pàtá) ᄒᆡ〯 (Yale: hǒy)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [hɛ(ː)] ~ [he̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 바다 (bada hae))

  1. Hanja form? of (sea; ocean). [affix]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [6]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: hải (()(cải)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: hẩy[1][2][3][6], hải[1][2][7][4], hái[1], hơi[1], hãi[2], hỏi[2]

  1. chữ Hán form of hải (sea; ocean).
  2. Nôm form of hẩy (to toss; to throw).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]