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U+6D77, 海
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6D77

[U+6D76]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6D78]
U+FA45, 海
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA45

[U+FA44]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA46]
海 U+2F901, 海
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F901
派
[U+2F900]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 流
[U+2F902]

Translingual[edit]

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional
Stroke order
10 strokes

Alternative forms[edit]

In Chinese, the bottom right component is with 2 dots, yielding . In Japanese shinjitai, this component is simplified to (1 cross stroke), yielding (+). Both forms are encoded under the same Unicode codepoint – see Han unification.

Han character[edit]

(radical 85, +7 in Chinese and Korean, 水+6 in Japanese, 10 strokes in Chinese and Korean, 9 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 水人田卜 (EOWY) or 水人田十 (EOWJ), four-corner 38157, composition(GHTKV or U+FA45) or ⿰(J or U+2F901))

Derived characters[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • KangXi: page 625, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1023, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1627, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6D77

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
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Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
海-bronze.svg 海-seal.svg 海-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hmlɯːʔ): semantic  (water) + phonetic  (OC *mɯːʔ).

Etymology[edit]

Probably related to (OC *hmɯːs, “dark”); in numerous Zhou texts is described as (Schuessler, 2007). Compare the parallelism in Chinese: (OC *meːŋ, *meːŋʔ, “ocean”) < (OC *meːŋ, “dark”).

STEDT compares (OC *hmlɯːʔ) to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *muːŋ ~ r/s-muːk (foggy; dark; sullen; menacing; thunder).

Pronunciation[edit]



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xai²¹⁴/
Harbin /xai²¹³/
Tianjin /xai¹³/
Jinan /xɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /xɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /xai⁵³/
Xi'an /xai⁵³/
Xining /xɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /xɛ⁵³/
Lanzhou /xɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /xai⁵¹/
Wuhan /xai⁴²/
Chengdu /xai⁵³/
Guiyang /xai⁴²/
Kunming /xæ⁵³/
Nanjing /xae²¹²/
Hefei /xe̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /xai⁵³/
Pingyao /xæ⁵³/
Hohhot /xɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /he³⁵/
Suzhou /he̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /he̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /he³⁵/
Hui Shexian /xɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /xuə³¹/
Xiang Changsha /xai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /xai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /hai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hoi³¹/
Taoyuan /hoi³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔi³⁵/
Nanning /hɔi³⁵/
Hong Kong /hɔi³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hai³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuɛ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hai⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hai²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hʌiX/
Pan
Wuyun
/həiX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɒiX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/həjX/
Li
Rong
/xᴀiX/
Wang
Li
/xɒiX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑ̆iX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hǎi
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hǎi
Middle
Chinese
‹ xojX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥ˁəʔ/ (dialect *m̥ˁ- > x-)
English sea

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9283
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmlɯːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. sea; ocean
  2. big lake
  3. (Cantonese) wide river
  4. overseas; abroad
  5. (figuratively) sea; abundance; infiniteness
  6. (regional) profuse; numerous
  7. unrestrainedly; randomly; casually
  8. A surname​. Hai (mainland China, Taiwan), Hoi (Hong Kong)

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (かい‎) (kai‎)
  • Korean: (, hae)
  • Vietnamese: hải ()

Others:

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. sea, ocean
  2. vastly gathered
  3. large, wide

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
うみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
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Wikipedia

⟨umi1 → */umij//umi/

From Old Japanese, theorized as descending from Proto-Japonic *omi.

Has been thought to have been derived from a compound. There are two leading theories regarding the ultimate derivation:

This is problematic phonetically because there is no known term having a related shift from /opo//oː//o//u/, and semantically as there already exists a compound 大水 (ōmizu, flood).
  • From (u-, stem indicating “ocean) + (mi, water, combining form). The u- stem is evident in (uo, fish) and (ushio, salt water; tide), and in the (una) element in various ancient terms (see below).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(うみ) (umi

  1. a sea, an ocean
    (うみ)(なか)にはいろんな()(もの)()らしています。
    Umi no naka ni wa ironna ikimono ga kurashiteimasu.
    There are all sorts of creatures living in the sea.
    (うみ)()うよ!
    Umi ni ikō yo!
    Let's go to the beach!
    Antonym: (oka, riku)
  2. a lake
    Synonym: (mizuumi)
  3. (figuratively) an object covering over a large area, as in 血の海 (chi no umi, pool of blood) or 火の海 (hi no umi, sea of fire)
  4. (planetology) a mare (dark surface of a celestial body, thought to appear like a sea)
  5. (calligraphy) in a (suzuri, inkstone), a reservoir where water is stored
    Synonym: (ike)
Usage notes[edit]

This is the most common general term in modern Japanese for sea or ocean.

Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(うみ) (Umi

  1. a female given name

Further reading[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
うな
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Thought to be comprised of (u-, stem indicating “ocean) + (na, ancient alternative form of possessive particle (no)).[4] The u- stem is also evident in (uo, fish) and (ushio, salt water; tide).

First cited to the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

(うな) (una-

  1. of the sea, of the ocean
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
わた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *wata.

May be related to Goguryeo 波旦 (padan). Possibly related to Korean 바다 (bada, ocean, sea).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(わた) (wata

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Either cognate with (mi, water), or an abbreviation of umi above.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

() (mi

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
かい
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC hʌiX).

Pronunciation[edit]

Affix[edit]

(かい) (kai

  1. sea; ocean

References[edit]

  1. ^ ”, in 日本大百科全書:ニッポニカ (Nippon Dai Hyakka Zensho: Nipponica, Encyclopedia Nipponica)[1] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 1984
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eumhun 바다 (bada hae))

  1. Hanja form? of (sea).

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: hải (()(cải)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: hẩy[1][2][3][6], hải[1][2][7][4], hái[1], hơi[1], hãi[2], hỏi[2]

  1. Hán tự form of hải (sea; ocean).
  2. Nôm form of hẩy (to toss; to throw).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]