海老

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Chinese[edit]

ocean; sea
 
old; aged; venerable; outdated; experienced; (affectionate prefix)
simp. and trad.
(海老)

Pronunciation[edit]



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (32) (37)
Final () (41) (89)
Tone (調) Rising (X) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hʌiX/ /lɑuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/həiX/ /lɑuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɒiX/ /lɑuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/həjX/ /lawX/
Li
Rong
/xᴀiX/ /lɑuX/
Wang
Li
/xɒiX/ /lɑuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑ̆iX/ /lɑuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hǎi lǎo
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hǎi lǎo
Middle
Chinese
‹ xojX › ‹ lawX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥ˁəʔ/ (dialect *m̥ˁ- > x-) /*C.rˁuʔ/
English sea old

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 9283 7666
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmlɯːʔ/ /*ruːʔ/

Verb[edit]

海老

  1. (literary, of a sea) to dry up

Noun[edit]

海老

  1. (literary) alcohol

Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2 Grade: 4
Irregular

/jepi//jebi//ebi/

Possibly from Old Japanese, first attested in the Honzō Wamyō (918 CE).

Ultimate derivation unclear, with theories including:

  • Shift in meaning from ebi, ancient reading of modern 葡萄 (budō, grape), from a resemblance in color
  • Shift in reading from epige, proposed compound of 良い (ei, good) + (pige → hige, beard) from the bearded appearance
  • Shift in reading from epige, proposed compound of (e, inlet, bay) + (pige → hige, beard) from the bearded appearance

Appears as Yebi in the Nippo Jisho of 1603.[1]

The kanji spelling is jukujikun (熟字訓), in reference to the vague resemblance to a stooped old man. See the kairō reading below.

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

海老 (hiragana えび, katakana エビ, rōmaji ebi)

  1. any long-tailed decapod crustacean or arthropod:
    1. a crayfish
      Hyponyms: 蝲蛄 (zarigani), 蝉海老 (semiebi)
    2. a lobster
      Synonym: ロブスター (robsutā)
      Hyponym: 海蝲蛄 (umi zarigani)
    3. a prawn
      Synonym: プローン (purōn)
      Hyponyms: 車海老 (kuruma-ebi), 大正海老 (Taishō ebi)
    4. a shrimp
      Synonym: シュリンプ (shurinpu)
  2. Short for 海老錠 (ebijō): a padlock
  3. a type of 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with an ebi motif
Usage notes[edit]

This term is more generic than the English glosses. Where necessary, the meaning can be clarified by indicating type or size:

Derived terms[edit]
Idioms[edit]
Proverbs[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

海老 (hiragana えび, rōmaji Ebi)

  1. a place name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
かい
Grade: 2
ろう
Grade: 4
on’yomi

*/kairau//kairɔː//kairoː/

Probably a coinage in Japan of Middle Chinese-derived elements, as (kai, sea, ocean) + (, elder, old person), in reference to the vague resemblance to a stooped old man.

Appears as Cairǒ in the Nippo Jisho of 1603.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

海老 (hiragana かいろう, rōmaji kairō, historical hiragana かいらう)

  1. any long-tailed decapod crustacean or arthropod:
    1. a crayfish
    2. a lobster
    3. a prawn
    4. a shrimp
Usage notes[edit]

This reading is less common than ebi above.

Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

海老 (hiragana かいろう, rōmaji Kairō, historical hiragana かいらう)

  1. a place name

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1603, 日葡辞書: パリ本 / Vocabulario da Lingoa Iapam (Nippo Jisho: Paris edition / Vocabulary of the Language of Japan) (in Japanese and Portuguese), 1976 reprint, Tōkyō: Bensei Publishing, text here