良い

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Japanese[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun'yomi

Modern form of Old Japanese adjective よし ‎(yoshi).[1][2][3]

/josi//joi/

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

良い ‎(-i inflection, hiragana よい, romaji yoi)

  1. good
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Most often written in hiragana. The kanji spelling is generally reserved for more formal writing.

Suffix[edit]

良い ‎(hiragana よい, romaji -yoi)

  1. easy
Usage notes[edit]

Most often written in hiragana. The kanji spelling is generally reserved for more formal writing.

Attaches to the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of a verb. Example:

  • 読み良い — よみよいyomiyoieasy to read

However, in modern Japanese, the adjective 安い, 易い ‎(yasui, easy, easygoing) is more commonly used to express this meaning.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 4

Phonetic shift from the Old Japanese yoshi form of yoi above. Already in use as early as the Nihon Shoki, circa 720.[1][2][3] This form is now obsolete, though it may still be found in some dialects.

/joɕi//eɕi//ei/

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

良い ‎(-i inflection, hiragana えい, romaji ei)

  1. (obsolete) good

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun'yomi

Phonetic shift from ei above. This is now the most common form used in casual spoken Japanese.[1][2][3]

/ei//ii/

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Adjective[edit]

良い ‎(-i inflection, hiragana いい, romaji ii)

  1. (colloquial, informal) good
Derived terms[edit]
Usage notes[edit]

Most often written in hiragana. The kanji spelling is generally reserved for more formal writing.

The ii form does not inflect — it is only used in the 終止形 ‎(shūshikei, terminal form) and 連体形 ‎(rentaikei, attributive form) of ii. All other grammatical forms are based on the yoi form above. Compare the 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or adverbial form) yoku or the 過去形 ‎(kakokei, past tense) yokatta: there is no *iku or *ikatta form.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0
  4. 4.0 4.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3