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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
酒-bw.png

Etymology[edit]

(water, liquid) +  (a wine vessel)

Han character[edit]

(radical 164 +3, 10 strokes, cangjie input 水一金田 (EMCW), four-corner 31160, composition)

Usage notes[edit]

This character is often translated as “wine”. However, it has always applied to strong alcoholic beverages made from fermented grains such as 黄酒, rather than or in preference to those made from grapes. Since the advent of distilling, it has also applied to hard liquor such as 白酒, while the qualified 葡萄酒 is used for wine proper and 啤酒 is used for beer.

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1281, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39776
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1779, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3574, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9152

Chinese[edit]

-
simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (酒), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 精 (13)
Final: 尤
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 子酉切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sɨuX/ /t͡si̯ə̯uX/ /t͡siuX/ /t͡siuX/ /t͡suwX/ /t͡sĭəuX/ /t͡siəuX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
jiǔ ‹ tsjuwX › /*tsuʔ/ wine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15554 1 /*ʔsluʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. wine, rice wine
  2. distilled spirit, liquor
  3. alcoholic beverages generally
    幹嗎 [MSC, trad.]
    干吗 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ gānmá bù hē diǎn jiǔ? [Pinyin]
    Why don't you have a drink (of alcohol)?

Usage notes[edit]

  • This word is often translated as “wine”. However, it commonly stands for many types of fermented drinks and is not specific to grapes.

See also[edit]

  • 葡萄酒 (pútáojiǔ, "grape wine")
  • 氿 (alternative character of 酒)

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. rice wine
  2. alcohol

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Originally /ki1/. Likely realized as [ki] (see Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai).

Noun[edit]

(hiragana , romaji ki)

  1. sake
    • 720: Nihon Shoki, volume 32 (Kodai Kayōshū, page 61)
      許能美波和賀美那良受久志能加美登許余迩伊麻須伊波多多須須久那美迦微能加牟菩岐本岐玖流本斯登余本岐本岐母登本斯麻都理許斯美叙阿佐受袁勢佐佐

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with obsolete 奇し (kushi, strange, wondrous, miraculous), which is also the root for (kusuri, medicine).[1][2]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana くし, romaji kushi)

  1. sake, rice wine
    • 720: Nihon Shoki, volume 32 (Kodai Kayōshū, page 61)
      許能美岐波和賀美岐那良受久志能加美登許余迩伊麻須伊波多多須須久那美迦微能加牟菩岐本岐玖流本斯登余本岐本岐母登本斯麻都理許斯美岐叙阿佐受袁勢佐佐
Derived terms[edit]
  • 笑酒, 咲酒 (egushi): rice wine or other alcohol that makes one smile and become happy

Etymology 3[edit]

/sake2/[sakəj][sake]

Various theories exist. Possible connection with 栄え (sakae), the stem of verb 栄える (sakaeru, to thrive, to flourish).[2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana さけ, romaji sake)

  1. alcohol beverage (e.g., wine, whisky, or sake)
  2. sake, saké, Japanese rice wine
Derived terms[edit]
  • お酒 (osake): Japanese rice wine

Etymology 4[edit]

Bound form of /sake/ above, only used as a prefix before other nouns. In older forms of Japanese, could also be used to prefix verbs.[1][6]

Prefix[edit]

(hiragana さか, romaji saka)

  1. alcohol
  2. sake, saké, Japanese rice wine

Etymology 5[edit]

Originally a 女房詞 (nyōbō kotoba, women's word). Possibly derived from reduplication of the first syllable sa from sake. Alternately, may be derived by metaphor from the Chinese-derived euphemism for sake, 竹葉 (chikuyō, literally, "bamboo leaves"), as (sasa) refers to a type of short, leafy bamboo.[7]

Noun[edit]

(hiragana ささ, romaji sasa)

  1. alcohol
  2. sake, saké, Japanese rice wine

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, Kokugo Dai Jiten Dictionary, Revised edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Shogakukan:
  2. 2.0 2.1 "" (in Japanese), Lookvise, Inc.: 2003. URL accessed on 2012-06-07.
  3. ^ 1988, Seinosuke Sugama, Heibonsha World Encyclopedia, "酒" article[1] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Heibonsha, retrieved on 2012-06-07:
  4. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  6. ^ 1998, Akira Matsumura editor, Digital Daijirin[2] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Shogakukan, ISBN 4095012129, retrieved on 2012-06-07:
  7. ^ 2006, Akira Matsumura editor, Daijirin[3], 3rd edition (in Japanese), Tokyo: Sanseido, ISBN 4-385-13905-9, retrieved on 2012-06-07:

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(ju) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer chu, Yale cwu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tửu, rượu, giậu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.