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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
酒-bw.png

Han character[edit]

(radical 164 +3, 10 strokes, cangjie input 水一金田 (EMCW), four-corner 31160, composition)

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1281, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39776
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1779, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3574, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+9152

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 氿

Glyph origin[edit]

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔsluʔ): semantic  ‎(water, liquid) + phonetic  ‎(OC *luʔ, a wine vessel)

Pronunciation[edit]


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (13)
Final: (136)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: jiǔ
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sɨuX/ /t͡siuX/ /t͡siəuX/ /t͡suwX/ /t͡siuX/ /t͡sĭəuX/ /t͡si̯ə̯uX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
jiǔ ‹ tsjuwX › /*tsuʔ/ wine

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15554 1 /*ʔsluʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. alcoholic beverages in general; alcoholic drink
    幹嗎 / 干吗  ―  Nǐ gānmá bù hē diǎn jiǔ?  ―  Why don't you have a drink (of alcohol)?

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. rice wine
  2. alcohol

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Originally /ki1/. Likely realized as [ki] (see Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai).

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji ki)

  1. sake
    • 720: Nihon Shoki, volume 32 (Kodai Kayōshū, page 61)
      許能美波和賀美那良受久志能加美登許余迩伊麻須伊波多多須須久那美迦微能加牟菩岐本岐玖流本斯登余本岐本岐母登本斯麻都理許斯美叙阿佐受袁勢佐佐

Etymology 2[edit]

Cognate with obsolete 奇し ‎(kushi, strange, wondrous, miraculous), which is also the root for ‎(kusuri, medicine).[1][2]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana くし, romaji kushi)

  1. sake, rice wine
    • 720: Nihon Shoki, volume 32 (Kodai Kayōshū, page 61)
      許能美岐波和賀美岐那良受久志能加美登許余迩伊麻須伊波多多須須久那美迦微能加牟菩岐本岐玖流本斯登余本岐本岐母登本斯麻都理許斯美岐叙阿佐受袁勢佐佐
Derived terms[edit]
  • 笑酒, 咲酒 ‎(egushi): rice wine or other alcohol that makes one smile and become happy

Etymology 3[edit]

/sake2/[sakəj][sake]

Various theories exist. Possible connection with 栄え ‎(sakae), the stem of verb 栄える ‎(sakaeru, to thrive, to flourish).[2][3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana さけ, romaji sake)

  1. alcohol beverage (e.g., wine, whisky, or sake)
  2. sake, saké, Japanese rice wine
Derived terms[edit]
  • お酒 ‎(osake): Japanese rice wine

Etymology 4[edit]

Bound form of /sake/ above, only used as a prefix before other nouns. In older forms of Japanese, could also be used to prefix verbs.[1][6]

Prefix[edit]

‎(hiragana さか, romaji saka)

  1. alcohol
  2. sake, saké, Japanese rice wine

Etymology 5[edit]

Originally a 女房詞 ‎(nyōbō kotoba, women's word). Possibly derived from reduplication of the first syllable sa from sake. Alternately, may be derived by metaphor from the Chinese-derived euphemism for sake, 竹葉 ‎(chikuyō, literally, "bamboo leaves"), as ‎(sasa) refers to a type of short, leafy bamboo.[7]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ささ, romaji sasa)

  1. alcohol
  2. sake, saké, Japanese rice wine

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kokugo Dai Jiten Dictionary (in Japanese), Revised edition edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 1988: “(「奇(く)し」で、霊妙なものの意からか)酒の異称”
  2. 2.0 2.1 “酒”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1] (in Japanese), Lookvise, Inc., 2003, retrieved 2012-06-07
  3. ^ Sugama, Seinosuke (1988) Heibonsha World Encyclopedia, "酒" article[2] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Heibonsha
  4. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  6. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (1998) Digital Daijirin[3] (in Japanese), Tokyo: Shogakukan, ISBN 4095012129
  7. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) Daijirin[4] (in Japanese), 3rd edition edition, Tokyo: Sanseido, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ju) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer chu, Yale cwu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Compounds[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tửu, rượu, giậu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.