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Hiragana letter Si.svg
U+3057, し



Stroke order
1 stroke


Etymology 1[edit]

Derived in the Heian period from writing the man'yōgana kanji in the cursive sōsho style.


(romaji shi)

  1. The hiragana syllable (shi). Its equivalent in katakana is (shi). It is the twelfth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is (sa-gyō i-dan, row sa, section i).
Derived terms[edit]
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]



  1. conjunctive particle, separates items in a list of reasons
    • 1937, 夢野久作(ゆめのきゅうさく) (Yumeno Kyūsaku) [Yumeno Kyūsaku], (おそ)ろしい東京(とうきょう) (Osoroshii Tōkyō)[1]:
      Miwatasu kagiri hyakkaten mitai de, doko de kippu o utteiru no ka wakaranai shi, purattofōmu rashii mono mo nai no de, machigatta no ka na to omotte mata ishidan o nobottemiruto, marukiri shiranai hanka na machi de aru.
      What I could see looked like a department store, I had no idea where tickets were being sold, and there wasn't anything like a platform. Wondering if I haven't come to the wrong place I once again walked up the stone stairs and a bustling street I wasn't familiar with filled my vision.
    • けいおん!
      “Demo demo, watashi undō onchi da shi, bunkakei no kurabu mo yoku wakaranai shi…”
      "But—but I'm terrible at sports and I don't really know anything about the cultural clubs…"
  2. sentence-ending particle, indicating mild emphasis, and alluding to an inferable but deliberately omitted conclusion
    Te ka nande yatta shi.
    But then, why did you do that [when you shouldn't have]?

Etymology 3[edit]

Alternative spellings

Cognate with demonstrative pronoun (so).



  1. third person personal pronoun; he, she, it
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 904)
      夕星乃 由布弊尓奈礼婆 伊射祢余登 手乎多豆佐波里 父母毛 表者奈佐我利 三枝之 中尓乎祢牟登 愛久 我可多良倍婆
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4191)
      鵜河立 取左牟安由能 我波多波 吾等尓可伎无気 念之念婆
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 19, poem 4254)
      八隅知之 吾大皇 秋花 我色々尓 見賜 明米多麻比 酒見附 榮流今日之 安夜尓貴左
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. reflexive pronoun; one, oneself
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 18, poem 4094)
      八十伴雄乎 麻都呂倍乃 牟気乃麻尓々々 老人毛 女童児毛 我願 心太良比尓 撫賜 治賜婆
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. 935: Tosa Nikki (day 24)
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    • c. late 10th century: Ochikubo Monogatari (Volume 1)
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Etymology 4[edit]

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entries.
[numeral] four, 4
[noun] the fourth
[affix] four
[affix] fourth
[affix] quadruple
[affix] here and there
[noun] poem
[noun] verse of poetry
[noun] (poetry) Chinese poetry
[noun] Short for 詩経 (Shijing, the Book of Odes).
[noun] death
[noun] (law, historical) one of the five punishments under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, the methods used are (, strangling) and (zan, decapitation)
[affix] death, to die
[affix] dead, unfunctional
[affix] life-or-death situation
[affix] dangerous, life-threatening
[affix] (baseball) out
[noun] teacher, Reverend
[noun] official, civil service
[verb] Alternative spelling of (shi, continuative of する (suru))
[suffix] city
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above Sino-Japanese terms.
For a list of all kanji read as , not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as し.)

Etymology 5[edit]



  1. (Classical Japanese) The adnominal form of (ki, past tense auxiliary).
    erabareshi mono
    the chosen one

Etymology 6[edit]

From Old Japanese. Not productive in modern usage.



  1. (Classical Japanese) The 終止形 (shūshikei, terminal or predicative form) of the conjugable ending for 形容詞 (keiyōshi, -i adjectives).
Usage notes[edit]
  • In Classical and Old Japanese, this is the terminal ending for both しく (shiku) adjectives (those ending in しい (-shii) in modern usage, such as 楽しい (tanoshii, fun)) and (ku) adjectives (those ending in (-i) in modern usage, such as 高い (takai, high, tall; expensive)).
  • Meanwhile, in modern Japanese, the terminal ending and adnominal ending both manifest as (i).
Classical Terminal Classical Adnominal Modern Terminal / Adnominal
(たの) (tanoshi)

(たか) (takashi)

(たの)しき (tanoshiki)

(たか) (takaki)

(たの)しい (tanoshii)

(たか) (takai)

Etymology 7[edit]

Alternative spelling



  1. stem or continuative form of する (suru)