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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
氏-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
氏-oracle.svg 氏-bronze.svg 氏-silk.svg 氏-bigseal.svg 氏-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a man bowing over to the left. Significantly abstracted – the middle cross was initially the knee, the stroke at bottom left was the bowed head, and the top was the back-swept hands or clothes.

Han character[edit]

(radical 83 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 竹女心 (HVP), four-corner 72740)

  1. KangXi radical №83
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №449

Usage notes[edit]

  • The third meaning has become largely obsolete, as current Chinese practice is for married women to continue to use their former surnames. The practice of sometimes adopting the husband's surname is being revived, however.follows the maiden name, which follows the married name氏 (née Zhang), 張氏 (Li née Zhang), or 張氏 (married to a lady of the Zhang clan).

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 597, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17026
  • Dae Jaweon: page 988, character 30
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2130, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6C0F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Initial () (23) (13) (25)
Final () (11) (121) (11)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () III III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕiᴇ/ /t͡siᴇŋ/ /d͡ʑiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕiɛ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /d͡ʑiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕjɛ/ /t͡siæŋ/ /d͡ʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ciə̆/ /t͡siajŋ/ /d͡ʑiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕie/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /ʑieX/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕǐe/ /t͡sĭɛŋ/ /ʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕie̯/ /t͡si̯ɛŋ/ /ʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhī jīng shì
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shì
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*k.deʔ/
English clan

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 11513 11515 11523
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*skeŋ/ /*kje/ /*ɡjeʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. clan, family
  2. Mr.
  3. (formerly) née, born as, maiden name
Compounds[edit]
  • 氏族 (shìzú, “clan”)
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Initial () (23) (13) (25)
Final () (11) (121) (11)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () III III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕiᴇ/ /t͡siᴇŋ/ /d͡ʑiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕiɛ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /d͡ʑiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕjɛ/ /t͡siæŋ/ /d͡ʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ciə̆/ /t͡siajŋ/ /d͡ʑiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕie/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /ʑieX/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕǐe/ /t͡sĭɛŋ/ /ʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕie̯/ /t͡si̯ɛŋ/ /ʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhī jīng shì
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shì
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*k.deʔ/
English clan

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
No. 11513 11515 11523
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*skeŋ/ /*kje/ /*ɡjeʔ/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 月氏 (yuèzhī).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. a family; a clan
  2. Mr.; Mrs.
  3. a certain person

‎(hiragana うじ, romaji uji)

  1. a family name
  2. birth; lineage

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ssi, ji) (hangeul , , revised ssi, ji, McCune-Reischauer ssi, chi, Yale ssi, ci)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thị)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.