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Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
氏-order.gif

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
氏-oracle.svg 氏-bronze.svg 氏-silk.svg 氏-bigseal.svg 氏-seal.svg

Pictogram (象形) – a man bowing over to the left. Significantly abstracted – the middle cross was initially the knee, the stroke at bottom left was the bowed head, and the top was the back-swept hands or clothes.

Han character[edit]

(radical 83 +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 竹女心 (HVP), four-corner 72740)

  1. KangXi radical №83
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №449

Usage notes[edit]

  • The third meaning has become largely obsolete, as current Chinese practice is for married women to continue to use their former surnames. The practice of sometimes adopting the husband's surname is being revived, however.follows the maiden name, which follows the married name氏 (née Zhang), 張氏 (Li née Zhang), or 張氏 (married to a lady of the Zhang clan).

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 597, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17026
  • Dae Jaweon: page 988, character 30
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2130, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6C0F

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (23)
Final: (11)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: zhī
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕiᴇ/ /t͡ɕiɛ/ /t͡ɕjɛ/ /ciə̆/ /t͡ɕie/ /t͡ɕǐe/ /t͡ɕie̯/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (13)
Final: (121)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: jīng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡siᴇŋ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /t͡siæŋ/ /t͡siajŋ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /t͡sĭɛŋ/ /t͡si̯ɛŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (25)
Final: (11)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑiᴇX/ /d͡ʑiɛX/ /d͡ʑjɛX/ /d͡ʑiə̆X/ /ʑieX/ /ʑǐeX/ /ʑie̯X/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shì ‹ dzyeX › /*k.deʔ/ clan

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11513 0 /*skeŋ/
11515 0 /*kje/
11523 0 /*ɡjeʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. clan, family
  2. Mr.
  3. (formerly) née, born as, maiden name
Compounds[edit]
  • 氏族 (shìzú, “clan”)
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (23)
Final: (11)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: zhī
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕiᴇ/ /t͡ɕiɛ/ /t͡ɕjɛ/ /ciə̆/ /t͡ɕie/ /t͡ɕǐe/ /t͡ɕie̯/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (13)
Final: (121)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: jīng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡siᴇŋ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /t͡siæŋ/ /t͡siajŋ/ /t͡siɛŋ/ /t͡sĭɛŋ/ /t͡si̯ɛŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (25)
Final: (11)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑiᴇX/ /d͡ʑiɛX/ /d͡ʑjɛX/ /d͡ʑiə̆X/ /ʑieX/ /ʑǐeX/ /ʑie̯X/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shì ‹ dzyeX › /*k.deʔ/ clan

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11513 0 /*skeŋ/
11515 0 /*kje/
11523 0 /*ɡjeʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. Only used in 月氏 (yuèzhī).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. a family; a clan
  2. Mr.; Mrs.
  3. a certain person

‎(hiragana うじ, romaji uji)

  1. a family name
  2. birth; lineage

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ssi, ji) (hangeul , , revised ssi, ji, McCune-Reischauer ssi, chi, Yale ssi, ci)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(thị)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.