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See also: and
U+7D19, 紙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D19

[U+7D18]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D1A]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 120, +4, 10 strokes, cangjie input 女火竹女心 (VFHVP), four-corner 22940, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 918, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27293
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1347, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3375, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+7D19

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𦀦
𥾬

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kjeʔ) : semantic (silk) + phonetic (OC *skeŋ, *kje, *ɡjeʔ).

Etymology

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Unknown. It has been connected to Vietnamese giấy (< Proto-Vietic *k-cajʔ).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • chóa - vernacular;
  • chí - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (23)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyeX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ciə̆X/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕieX/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǐ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zi2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǐ
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*k.teʔ/
English paper

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11516
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kjeʔ/

Definitions

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  1. (countable) paper (Classifier: )
    草稿草稿  ―  cǎogǎozhǐ  ―  scratch paper
    文具 [MSC, trad.]
    文具 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā mǎi le zhǐ, bǐ děng wénjù. [Pinyin]
    She bought paper, pens, and other such stationery.
    棕色包裹起來 [MSC, trad.]
    棕色包裹起来 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā yòng zōngsè de zhǐ bǎ bāoguǒ bāo qǐlái. [Pinyin]
    He wrapped brown paper around the package.
  2. (chiefly Cantonese) currency
    [Cantonese]  ―  gong2 zi2 [Jyutping]  ―  Hong Kong dollar
    [Cantonese]  ―  gaa1 zi2 [Jyutping]  ―  Canadian dollar
  3. (Cantonese, countable) banknote; bill (Classifier: c)
    [Cantonese]  ―  sap6 man1 zi2 [Jyutping]  ―  ten-dollar bill
  4. Classifier for document and letters.
  5. Short for 紙錢纸钱 (zhǐqián, “paper made to resemble money and burnt as an offering to the dead”).
  6. (Mandarin, neologism, slang) Pronunciation spelling of ().
      ―  mèizhǐ  ―  girl
      ―  pàngzhǐ  ―  fatty
  7. a surname

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (shi)
  • Korean: 지(紙) (ji)
  • Vietnamese: chỉ ()

Others:

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. paper

Readings

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Alternative forms

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cited to manuscript kana glosses in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[1]

Appears to be a shift in pronunciation from the Middle Chinese term (MC keanX), borrowed into Old Japanese with the pronunciation kan.[2]

  • /kaɴ/ → */kamu//kami/

Earlier Japanese writing was ambiguous regarding the final n sound spelled in modern Japanese, with this sound often spelled (and possibly pronounced) as (mu) instead. Compare the similar appearance of an excrescent final -i in the derivation of (fumi) from borrowed bun or pun.

Pronunciation

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  • (Tokyo) [kàmíꜜ] (Odaka – [2])[3][4][5]
  • IPA(key): [ka̠mʲi]
  • Audio:(file)

Noun

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(かみ) (kami

  1. [from 720] paper
Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC tsyeX).

Pronunciation

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Affix

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() (shi (si)?

  1. paper
  2. newspaper
    大手紙(おおてし)
    ōteshi
    major newspaper

References

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  1. ^ ”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉 [Digital Daijisen]‎[2] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 종이 (jong'i ji))

  1. Hanja form? of (paper).

Old Japanese

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Noun

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(*KAMI₁)

  1. paper
    • Shōsōin document, text here
      卅巻未取犯、仍為一帙、〈加遲
      MI₁SO₁ MAKI₁ PA WOKASI WO TO₂RAZU, ITI-TITU wo SI YO₁RU (kadi-no₂ KAMI₁)
      Thirty folds are not taken as a crime; continue making one book case ([using] paper made from rudder)

Reconstruction notes

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The reconstruction as *KAMI₁ and not **KAMI₂ is because Ainu would have loaned this word as *kambUy, not kambi. Note that Old Japanese "voiced stops" are recognized as pre-nasalized voiced stops, and this is supported by Ainu loans from Old Japanese.

Descendants

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Vietnamese

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Chữ Hán

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: Hán Nôm readings: chỉ, giấy

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.