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U+7109, 焉
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7109

[U+7108]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+710A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 86 +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 一卜中火 (MYLF), four-corner 10327)

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 672, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19076
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1081, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2206, character 14
  • Unihan data for U+7109

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
焉-bronze.svg 焉-seal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qʰran
*qʰran, *qran, *qranʔ, *qans
*qran, *ɢan, *qan
*qran, *qanʔ, *qans
*qran, *qan
*ɢan, *qans
*qans

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qran, *ɢan, *qan): phonetic  (OC *tjeŋ, *tjeŋs) + semantic  (bird) ― a kind of bird.

Etymology[edit]

“in it; on it; here”
From (OC *qa) + *-n (demonstrative suffix), an element equivalent to (“him; her; it”) (Schuessler, 2007; Pulleyblank, 1995). Compare (OC *ɢʷan).
“where; how”
Probably a variant of (OC *qaːn, “where; how”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (35)
Final () (79)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦᵚiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦian/
Li
Rong
/ɣjɛn/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yān
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ʔ]a[n]/ (atonic)
English (3p locative pronoun)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 14232
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢan/

Definitions[edit]

  1. a kind of yellow bird, found around the Yangtze and Huai Rivers
  2. in it; on it; to it; from it; by it; here
  3. Final modal particle, used to show a particular state or express affirmation, doubt or exclamation.
    Synonyms: (zāi), ()

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3 1/3
Initial () (34) (34)
Final () (79) (65)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () Chongniu III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠiᴇn/ /ʔɨɐn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔᵚiɛn/ /ʔiɐn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔiæn/ /ʔiɐn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔian/ /ʔɨan/
Li
Rong
/ʔjɛn/ /ʔiɐn/
Wang
Li
/ĭɛn/ /ĭɐn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔi̯ɛn/ /ʔɨ̯ɐn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yān yān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yān
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔjen ›
Old
Chinese
/*ʔa[n]/
English how

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3 1/3
No. 14235 14227
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qan/ /*qran/

Definitions[edit]

  1. (interrogative) how? why? where? when?
    • [Classical Chinese]  ―  Yān zhī fēi fú? [Pinyin]  ―  How could one have known that it would not be fortuitous?
  2. thereupon; therefore; then

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings[edit]


Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

(eon)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: eon, McCune-Reischauer: ŏn, Yale: en)
    • Name (hangeul): 어찌
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.