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U+77E5, 知
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-77E5

[U+77E4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+77E6]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
知-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 111, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人大口 (OKR), four-corner 86400, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 824, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23935
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1235, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2581, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+77E5

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'eds
*l'eds, *ɢʷleds, *ɢʷled
*l̥ʰiːs, *ljiʔ, *l'iʔ
*ʔl'e
*te
*ʔl'es
*te
*teɡs, *deɡ
*de
*l'iʔ
*hliʔ
*l̥ʰɯ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔl'e): phonetic  (OC *hliʔ, arrow) + semantic  (mouth). This may also be an ideogram (指事) – words coming out of people who know are like arrows being fired.

Etymology[edit]

The two pronunciations are cognate. The word is possibly of Sino-Tibetan origin, compare Mizo hria, hriat (to know), Jingpho chye (to know), Tibetan རིག (rig, to know) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • ei1 - colloquial;
  • zi1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chai - colloquial;
    • ti - literary.
    Note:
    • zai1 - colloquial;
    • di1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹³/
    Qingdao /tʃz̩²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹/
    Xining /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sz̩¹¹/
    Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡sz̩³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sz̩⁵³/
    Suzhou /zz̩ʷ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡sz̩³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡sz̩³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕi³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³³/
    Xiangtan /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sz̩⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /ti⁴⁴/
    /t͡sz̩⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /ti²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡si⁵³/
    Nanning /t͡si⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡si⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ti⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ti⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ti⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ti³³/
    /t͡sai³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡si²³/
    /tai²³/
    /t͡si³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (9)
    Final () (11)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʈiᴇ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʈiɛ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȶjɛ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʈiə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȶie/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȶǐe/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȶie̯/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zh-
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhī
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ trje ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tre/
    English know

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11495
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔl'e/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to know; to understand; to comprehend
    2. to cause to know; to tell; to inform
        ―  tōngzhī  ―  to inform
    3. to administer; to take charge of
      • /   ―  zhīxiàn  ―  governor of a county
      •   ―  zhī  ―  receptionist at a ceremony
    4. to distinguish
    5. to appreciate
    6. to be close friends; close friends
        ―  zhī  ―  close friend
      •   ―  zhīyǒu  ―  close friend
    7. to perceive
    8. to participate in; to have a hand in
    9. knowledge
        ―  qiúzhī  ―  to seek knowledge
    10. (~母) (phonology) a Middle Chinese initial and the 'Phags-pa script letter (j-)

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  () (chi)
    • Korean: (, ji)
    • Vietnamese: tri ()

    Compounds[edit]

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Definitions[edit]

    1. Original form of (zhì, “knowing, wisdom, intelligence”).

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to know
    2. wisdom

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]


    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (trjeH, wisdom).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana , rōmaji chi)

    1. wisdom

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (al ji))

    1. know

    Compounds[edit]


    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (tri, trơ)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.