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U+77E5, 知
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-77E5

[U+77E4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+77E6]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
知-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 111 +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 人大口 (OKR), four-corner 86400, composition)

Descendants[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 824, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23935
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1235, character 27
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2581, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+77E5

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin[edit]

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'eds
*l'eds, *ɢʷleds, *ɢʷled
*l̥ʰiːs, *ljiʔ, *l'iʔ
*ʔl'e
*te
*ʔl'es
*te
*teɡs, *deɡ
*de
*l'iʔ
*hliʔ
*l̥ʰɯ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ʔl'e): phonetic (OC *hliʔ, arrow) + semantic (mouth). This may also be an ideogram (指事) – words coming out of people who know are like arrows being fired.

Etymology[edit]

The two pronunciations are cognate. The word is possibly of Sino-Tibetan origin, compare Mizo hria, hriat(to know), Jingpho chye(to know), Tibetan རིག(rig, to know) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • chai - colloquial;
  • ti - literary.
Note:
  • zai1 - colloquial;
  • di1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹³/
Qingdao /tʃz̩²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³¹/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
Chengdu /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡sz̩⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³¹/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sz̩¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sz̩³¹/
Wu Shanghai /t͡sz̩⁵³/
Suzhou /zz̩ʷ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sz̩³³/
Wenzhou /t͡sz̩³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕi³¹/
Tunxi /t͡ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³³/
Xiangtan /ʈ͡ʂʐ̩³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sz̩⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /ti⁴⁴/
/t͡sz̩⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /ti²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡si⁵³/
Nanning /t͡si⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡si⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ti⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ti⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ti⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ti³³/
/t͡sai³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /t͡si²³/
/tai²³/
/t͡si³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (9)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈiᴇ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiɛ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶjɛ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈiə̆/
Li
Rong
/ȶie/
Wang
Li
/ȶǐe/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶie̯/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zh-
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhī
Middle
Chinese
‹ trje ›
Old
Chinese
/*tre/
English know

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11495
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔl'e/
Notes

Definitions[edit]

  1. to know; to understand; to comprehend
  2. to cause to know; to tell; to inform
      ―  tōngzhī  ―  to inform
  3. to administer; to take charge of
    • /   ―  zhīxiàn  ―  governor of a county
    •   ―  zhī  ―  receptionist at a ceremony
  4. to distinguish
  5. to appreciate
  6. to be close friends; close friends
      ―  zhī  ―  close friend
    •   ―  zhīyǒu  ―  close friend
  7. to perceive
  8. to participate in; to have a hand in
  9. knowledge
      ―  qiúzhī  ―  to seek knowledge

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():

Compounds[edit]

Pronunciation 2[edit]


Definitions[edit]

  1. Original form of (zhì, “knowing, wisdom, intelligence”).

Compounds[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to know
  2. wisdom

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on'yomi

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (trjeH, wisdom).

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana , romaji chi)

  1. wisdom

References[edit]

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(ji) (hangeul , revised ji, McCune-Reischauer chi, Yale ci)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(tri, trơ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.