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U+6B63, 正
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B63

[U+6B62]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B64]
IDEOGRAPHIC TALLY MARK FIVE.svg
𝍶 U+1D376, 𝍶
IDEOGRAPHIC TALLY MARK FIVE
𝍵
[U+1D375]
Counting Rod Numerals 𝍷
[U+1D377]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order
正-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

As a component of some complex characters, is often written as 𤴓 with its last two strokes different. Compare and .

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 77, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一卜中一 (MYLM), four-corner 10101, composition)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №31

Usage notes[edit]

  • (tally marks, 5): The successive strokes of (East Asian tally marks 1 through 5) are used in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and other areas where Chinese characters are prominent to designate tallies in votes, scores, points, sushi orders, and the like, much as Tally b05.svg is used in Africa, the Americas, Australia, and Europe. Tallies beyond five are written with a for each group of five, followed by the remainder. For example, a tally of twelve 12 in tally marks as used in Europe, Zimbabwe, Australia, and North America is written as 正正丅.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 574, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16255
  • Dae Jaweon: page 962, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1436, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6B63

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
正-oracle.svg 正-bronze.svg 正-seal.svg 正-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tjeŋ, *tjeŋs): phonetic (OC *rteːŋ, *teːŋ) + semantic (foot) – to go on a long journey. Original form of (OC *tjeŋ, “to go on long campaign”).

Etymology[edit]

Sino-Tibetan or area word: “centre; target; first (month); straight; correct”.

Compare Mizo dîng (to go straight or direct (as person, arrow etc.); to go straight through without breaking the journey; straight; direct). Matisoff sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tjak/ŋ ~ tik/ŋ (good; very; real; straight) for this, which includes , (OC *dɯɡ, “straight; right”) and (OC *ɦliɡ, “solid; true”).

Additionally, Matisoff has Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t(r)waŋ (straight; straighten), whence Chepang धेङ्‌सा (dʰeŋ-, straight), Jingpho ding (straight), Tibetan དྲང་པོ (drang po, straight; correct; upright; just; fair), Burmese တန်း (tan:, straight; to head straight for). Also compare Khmer ទៀង (tiəng, accurate; correct; exact; precise; honest).

Derivatives:

  • (OC *tjeŋ, “to go straight > to go on a journey”)
  • (OC *tjeŋs, “correct; to govern; government; to determine”)
  • (OC *tjeŋʔ, “orderly; to arrange; to dispose”)

Pronunciation 2 for the month's name results from the historical avoidance of the taboo on its homophone (OC *tjeŋs), which was the given name of Qin Shi Huang.

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • zeng3 - vernacular;
  • zing3 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • chang/zang4 - vernacular;
    • chṳn/zen4 - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ciáng - vernacular;
    • céng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiàⁿ - vernacular;
    • chèng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕiᴇŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕiɛŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕiæŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ciajŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕiɛŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭɛŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯ɛŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhèng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zing3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhèng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyengH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*teŋ-s/
    English correct (adj., v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 17178
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjeŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. straight; upright in proper position; middle
      /   ―  zhèngmén  ―  front door
      /   ―  Bǎ huà guà zhèng.  ―  Hang the painting straight.
      Antonym: (wāi)
    2. right; proper; correct; upright
        ―  zhèng  ―  right way; correct path
        ―  zhèngpài  ―  decent; upright; proper
        ―  gōngzhèng  ―  just; fair
      作風 / 作风  ―  Tā zuòfēng bù zhèng.  ―  He behaves with impropriety.
      行得企得 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      haang4 dak1 zeng3 kei5 dak1 zeng3 [Jyutping]
      to act in a proper manner
    3. obverse; right
      25美分硬幣華盛頓總統頭像 [MSC, trad.]
      25美分硬币华盛顿总统头像 [MSC, simp.]
      25 měifēn yìngbì de zhèngmiàn shì Huáshèngdùn zǒngtǒng de tóuxiàng. [Pinyin]
      The obverse of a quarter shows the profile of George Washington.
      Antonym: (fǎn)
    4. regular; standard
      /   ―  zhèngguī  ―  regular; standard
        ―  zhèngkǎi  ―  regular script
    5. precisely; directly; perfectly
      前方  ―  zhèng qiánfāng  ―  straight ahead
        ―  zhèng nán  ―  due south
    6. primary; chief; main
        ―  zhèngwén  ―  main body
      主任  ―  zhèng fù zhǔrèn  ―  director and deputy director
    7. pure; unmixed; authentic; true
      紅色 / 红色  ―  zhèng hóngsè  ―  pure red
    8. pretty; attractive; beautiful
    9. (Cantonese) awesome; fantastic
      餐廳 [Cantonese, trad.]
      餐厅 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ji1 gaan1 caan1 teng1 zeng3 aa3! [Jyutping]
      This restaurant is awesome!
    10. just now; right now; in the process of
      /   ―  zhèng děng zhe ne.  ―  I'm waiting.
      外面下雪  ―  Wàimiàn zhèngzài xiàxuě.  ―  It's snowing outside.
      時候上海讀書 [MSC, trad.]
      时候上海读书 [MSC, simp.]
      Nà shíhòu wǒ zhèng zài Shànghǎi dúshū. [Pinyin]
      At that time I was studying in Shanghai
    11. just; exactly; precisely
      剛才 / 刚才  ―  Zhèngrú nǐ gāngcái shuō de.  ―  Just as you have said just now
    12. to straighten; to make straight
      帽子  ―  bǎ màozǐ zhèngzhèng  ―  to straighten out one’s hat
    13. to make right; to rectify; to correct
        ―  zhèngyīn  ―  to correct one's pronunciation
    14. (numeral) ten duodecillion(1040)
    15. (mathematics) regular
      六邊形 / 六边形  ―  zhèng liùbiānxíng  ―  regular hexagon
      四面體 / 四面体  ―  zhèng sìmiàntǐ  ―  regular tetrahedron
    16. (mathematics) positive; plus
      整數 / 整数  ―  zhèng zhěngshù  ―  positive integer
    17. (physics) positive
      /   ―  zhèng  ―  positive pole
    18. (time) sharp; on the dot
        ―  zhèng  ―  noon
      而家五點 [Cantonese, trad.]
      而家五点 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ji4 gaa1 hai6 ng5 dim2 zing3. [Jyutping]
      It is precisely 5 o'clock.
    19. (Hakka, Teochew) only; merely
    20. (Hakka, Teochew) just; just now
    21. (Hakka, Teochew) only then; only after
    22. (Hakka, Teochew) Used to emphasize that something is/is not.
    23. (Min Nan) right (direction)
    24. A surname​.
    25. (tally marks) five (successive strokes of are added in writing sequence to tally a count of five per character)

    Synonyms[edit]

    Antonyms[edit]

    • (right): (Min Nan) (, “left”)

    Compounds[edit]

    See 正/derived terms § Chinese pronunciation 1.

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numerals
    104 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 1048
    (wàn) 亿 () (zhào) (Taiwan) (jīng) (Taiwan) (gāi) () (ráng) (gōu) (jiàn) (zhèng) (zài) ()
    萬億万亿 (wànyì)
    (Mainland China)
    /亿亿
    (Mainland China)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • ciăng - vernacular;
    • cĭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕiᴇŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕiɛŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕiæŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ciajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕiɛŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭɛŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯ɛŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhēng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    zing1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyeng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.teŋ/
    English 1st (month)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 17171
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjeŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. first (month of the lunar year)
        ―  xīnzhēng  ―  first month of the lunar new year
    2. bull's eye; centre of target
    3. target; goal
    4. Original form of (zhēng, “to levy”).
    5. Original form of (zhēng, “to go on a punitive expedition”).

    Compounds[edit]

    See 正/derived terms § Chinese pronunciation 2.

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (しょう) (shō); (せい) (sei)
    • Korean: (, jeong)
    • Vietnamese: chính (), chánh ()

    Others:

    • Lao: ຈຽງ (chīang, first month of the lunar year)
    • Lü: ᦵᦈᧂ (ṫseng, first month in Dai lunar calendar, starting in November)
    • Northern Thai: ᨠ᩠ᨿᨦ (first month of the lunar year)
    • Shan: ၸဵင် (tsǎeng, first month of the Shan year, starting December-January)
    • Ahom: 𑜋𑜢𑜂𑜫 (chiṅ, first month of the lunar year)
    • Vietnamese: giêng (first month of the Vietnamese lunar year, starting January-February)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    See 正/derived terms § Japanese.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    Noun[edit]

    (せい) (sei

    1. correctness

    Pronoun[edit]

    (せい) (sei

    1. : (humble) I or me, the first person singular (used by males)

    Numeral[edit]

    (せい) (sei

    1. A number of ten-duodecillion(1040) in modern Japanese since 17th century.
    2. 5, as tally marks. Similar to four vertical lines followed by a slanted horizontal line crossing through them, this character is used to count to 5 stroke by stroke. Thus this kanji written up to the third stroke represents 3. After the fifth and final stroke, when this character is completed, one starts writing this character again to count to higher numbers.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 1
    goon

    Prefix[edit]

    (しょう) (shō-

    1. (history) "senior" ranking for (-i, Japanese courtier rank)
      Antonym: (ju-)
      (しょう)(いち)()
      shōichii
      senior rank 1
      (しょう)(さん)()
      shōsanmi
      senior rank 3
      (しょう)()()
      shōkui
      senior rank 9
    2. : exactly (of a number)

    Adjective[edit]

    (しょう) (shō-na (adnominal (しょう) (shō na), adverbial (しょう) (shō ni))

    1. proper; straight, direct; genuine, true

    Numeral[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    (しょう) (shō

    1. ten-duodecillion(1040)

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ただし
    Grade: 1
    nanori
    Kanji in this term
    まさし
    Grade: 1
    nanori

    (まさし) or (ただし) (Masashi or Tadashi

    1. A male given name

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕiᴇŋH).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕɘ(ː)ŋ]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescriptive in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 바를 (bareul jeong))

    1. Hanja form? of (straight; upright; erect).

    Compounds[edit]

    See 正/derived terms § Korean etymology 1.

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕiᴇŋ).

    Historical readings

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 정월(正月) (jeong'wol jeong))

    1. Hanja form? of (first (month of the lunar year)).
    2. Hanja form? of (target).

    Compounds[edit]

    See 正/derived terms § Korean etymology 2.

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: chinh ((chi)(thịnh)(thiết)), chánh[1][2], chính[3][4][1][2][5]
    : Nôm readings: chánh[3][4][1][2][5], chênh[1], chính[3][4][1][2][6], chếnh[1][7][2][5][6], chiếng[3], chỉnh[1], giêng[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of chánh (chief; head).
    2. chữ Hán form of chính (main; major, chief; just, righteous).
    3. Nôm form of chếnh.

    Derived terms[edit]

    See 正/derived terms § Vietnamese.

    References[edit]