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U+6B63, 正
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B63

[U+6B62]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B64]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order
正-order.gif

Alternative forms[edit]

As a component of some complex characters, is often written as 𤴓 with its last two strokes different. Compare and .

Han character[edit]

(radical 77, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一卜中一 (MYLM), four-corner 10101, composition)

Usage notes[edit]

  • (tally marks, 5): The successive strokes of (East Asian tally marks 1 through 5) are used in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and other areas where Chinese characters are prominent to designate tallies in votes, scores, points, sushi orders, and the like, much as Tally b05.svg is used in Africa, the Americas, Australia, and Europe. Tallies beyond five are written with a for each group of five, followed by the remainder. For example, a tally of twelve 12 in tally marks as used in Europe, Zimbabwe, Australia, and North America is written as 正正丅.

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 574, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16255
  • Dae Jaweon: page 962, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1436, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6B63

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
正-oracle.svg 正-bronze.svg 正-seal.svg 正-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *tjeŋ, *tjeŋs): phonetic  (OC *rteːŋ, *teːŋ) + semantic  (foot) – to go on a long journey. Original form of (OC *tjeŋ, “to go on long campaign”).

Etymology[edit]

Sino-Tibetan or area word: “centre; target; first (month); straight; correct”.

Compare Mizo dîng (to go straight or direct (as person, arrow etc.); to go straight through without breaking the journey; straight; direct). Matisoff sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tjak/ŋ ~ tik/ŋ (good; very; real; straight) for this, which includes , (OC *dɯɡ, “straight; right”) and (OC *ɦliɡ, “solid; true”).

Additionally, Matisoff has Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t(r)waŋ (straight; straighten), whence Chepang धेङ्‌सा (dʰeŋ-, straight), Jingpho ding (straight), Tibetan དྲང་པོ (drang po, straight; correct; upright; just; fair), Burmese တန်း (tan:, straight; to head straight for). Also compare Khmer ទៀង (tiəng, accurate; correct; exact; precise; honest).

Derivatives:

  • (OC *tjeŋ, “to go straight > to go on a journey”)
  • (OC *tjeŋs, “correct; to govern; government; to determine”)
  • (OC *tjeŋʔ, “orderly; to arrange; to dispose”)

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note:
  • zeng3 - vernacular;
  • zing3 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • chang - vernacular;
    • chṳn - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • ciáng - vernacular;
    • céng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • chiàⁿ - vernacular;
    • chèng - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕiᴇŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕiɛŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕiæŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ciajŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕiɛŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭɛŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯ɛŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhèng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhèng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyengH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*teŋ-s/
    English correct (adj., v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 17178
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjeŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. straight; upright; central; in proper position
      Antonym: (wāi)
    2. right; proper; correct
    3. exact; standardized; just so
    4. regular-shaped; regular; square
    5. primary; chief; main
    6. pure; unmixed; authentic; true
    7. pretty; attractive; beautiful
    8. honest; upright; honourable
    9. (Cantonese) awesome; fantastic
    10. just now; right now; in the process of
    11. to straighten; to make straight; to adjust
    12. to make right; to rectify; to correct
    13. (tally marks) 5
    14. (numismatics) obverse
    15. (numeral) ten duodecillion(1040)
    16. (mathematics) positive; plus
    17. (physics) positive
    18. (time) sharp
      而家五點 [Cantonese, trad.]
      而家五点 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Ji4 gaa1 hai6 ng5 dim2 zing3. [Jyutping]
      It is currently 5 o'clock.
    19. (Teochew) only; merely
    20. (Teochew) just; just now
    21. (Teochew) only then; only after
    22. (Teochew) Used to emphasize that something is/is not.
    23. (Min Nan) right (direction)
    24. A surname​.
    25. Individual strokes are added in writing sequence to tally a count of five per character.

    Synonyms[edit]

    Antonyms[edit]

    (right):

    • (Min Nan) (, “left”)

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    Chinese numerals
    104 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 1048
    (wàn) 亿 () (zhào) (Taiwan) (jīng) (Taiwan) (gāi) () (ráng) (gōu) (jiàn) (zhèng) (zài) ()
    萬億万亿 (wànyì)
    (Mainland China)
    /亿亿
    (Mainland China)

    Pronunciation 2[edit]


    Note:
    • ciăng - vernacular;
    • cĭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (23)
    Final () (121)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕiᴇŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕiɛŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕiæŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ciajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕiɛŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕĭɛŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕi̯ɛŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    zhēng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    zhēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyeng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.teŋ/
    English 1st (month)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 17171
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*tjeŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. first (month of the lunar year)
    2. bull's eye; centre of target
    3. target; goal
    4. Original form of (zhēng, “to levy”).
    5. Original form of (zhēng, “to go on a punitive expedition”).

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (しょう) (shō); (せい) (sei)
    • Korean: (, jeong)
    • Vietnamese: chính (), chánh ()

    Others:

      • Lao: ຈຽງ (chīang, first month of the lunar year)
      • Lü: ᦵᦈᧂ (ṫseng, first month in Dai lunar calendar, starting in November)
      • Northern Thai: ᨠ᩠ᨿᨦ (first month of the lunar year)
      • Shan: ၸဵင် (tsěng, first month of the Shan year, starting December-January)
      • Ahom: 𑜋𑜢𑜂𑜫 (ching, first month of the lunar year)

    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Numeral[edit]

    (せい) (sei

    1. A number of ten-duodecillion(1040) in modern Japanese since 17th century.
    2. 5. Similar to four vertical lines followed by a slanted horizontal line crossing through them, this character is used to count to 5 stroke by stroke. Thus this kanji written up to the third stroke represents 3. After the fifth and final stroke, when this character is completed, one starts writing this character again to count to higher numbers.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ただし) (Tadashi

    (まさし) (Masashi

    1. A male given name

    Korean[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕiᴇŋ, t͡ɕiᴇŋH).

    Hanja[edit]

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 바를 (bareul jeong))

    1. Hanja form? of (straight; upright; erect).

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: chính ((chi)(thịnh)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], chánh[3][4]
    : Nôm readings: chính[1][2][3][4][6], chánh[1][2][3][4][5], chếnh[3][7][4][5][6], chiếng[1], chênh[3], chỉnh[3], giêtng[3]

    1. Hán tự form of chính (main; major, chief; just, righteous).
    2. Hán tự form of chánh (chief; head).
    3. Nôm form of chếnh.

    Compounds[edit]

    References[edit]