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U+6B63, 正
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6B63

[U+6B62]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6B64]

𝍶 U+1D376, 𝍶
IDEOGRAPHIC TALLY MARK FIVE
𝍵
[U+1D375]
Counting Rod Numerals 𝍷
[U+1D377]

Translingual

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Stroke order
5 strokes
Stroke order

Alternative forms

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As a component of some complex characters, is often written as 𤴓 with its last two strokes different. Compare and .

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 77, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 一卜中一 (MYLM), four-corner 10101, composition )

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №31

Usage notes

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  • (tally marks, 5): The successive strokes of (East Asian tally marks 1 through 5) are used in China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and other areas where Chinese characters are prominent to designate tallies in votes, scores, points, sushi orders, and the like, much as is used in Africa, the Americas, Australia, and Europe. Tallies beyond five are written with a for each group of five, followed by the remainder. For example, a tally of twelve 12 in tally marks as used in Europe, Zimbabwe, Australia, and North America is written as 正正丅.

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 574, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 16255
  • Dae Jaweon: page 962, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1436, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6B63

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *tjeŋ, *tjeŋs) : phonetic (OC *rteːŋ, *teːŋ) + semantic (foot) – to go on a long journey. Original form of (OC *tjeŋ, “to go on long campaign”).

Etymology

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Sino-Tibetan or area word: “centre; target; first (month); straight; correct”.

Compare Mizo dîng (to go straight or direct (as person, arrow etc.); to go straight through without breaking the journey; straight; direct). Matisoff sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-tjak/ŋ ~ tik/ŋ (good; very; real; straight) for this, which includes , (OC *dɯɡ, “straight; right”) and (OC *ɦliɡ, “solid; true”).

Additionally, Matisoff has Proto-Sino-Tibetan *t(r)waŋ (straight; straighten), whence Chepang धेङ्‌सा (dʰeŋ-, straight), Jingpho ding (straight), Tibetan དྲང་པོ (drang po, straight; correct; upright; just; fair), Burmese တန်း (tan:, straight; to head straight for). Also compare Khmer ទៀង (tiĕng, accurate; correct; exact; precise; honest).

Derivatives:

  • (OC *tjeŋ, “to go straight > to go on a journey”)
  • (OC *tjeŋs, “correct; to govern; government; to determine”)
  • (OC *tjeŋʔ, “orderly; to arrange; to dispose”)

For etymology of pronunciation (zhĕng) in the month 正月 (zhēngyuè)'s name, see there.

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • zeng3 - vernacular;
  • zing3 - literary.
Note:
  • chang/zang4 - vernacular;
  • chṳn/zen4 - literary.
Note:
  • ciáng - vernacular;
  • céng - literary.
Note:
  • chiàⁿ - vernacular;
  • chèng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (23)
Final () (121)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyengH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕiᴇŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕiɛŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕiæŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ciajŋH/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕiɛŋH/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭɛŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯ɛŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhèng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zing3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhèng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*teŋ-s/
English correct (adj., v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 17178
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjeŋs/

Definitions

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  1. straight; upright in proper position; middle
      ―  zhèngmén  ―  front door
      ―  Bǎ huà guà zhèng.  ―  Hang the painting straight.
    Antonym: (wāi)
  2. right; proper; correct; upright
      ―  zhèng  ―  right way; correct path
      ―  zhèngpài  ―  decent; upright; proper
      ―  gōngzhèng  ―  just; fair
    作風作风  ―  Tā zuòfēng bù zhèng.  ―  He behaves with impropriety.
    行得企得 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
    haang4 dak1 zeng3 kei5 dak1 zeng3 [Jyutping]
    to act in a proper manner
  3. obverse; right
    25美分硬幣華盛頓總統頭像 [MSC, trad.]
    25美分硬币华盛顿总统头像 [MSC, simp.]
    25 měifēn yìngbì de zhèngmiàn shì Huáshèngdùn zǒngtǒng de tóuxiàng. [Pinyin]
    The obverse of a quarter shows the profile of George Washington.
    Antonym:
  4. regular; standard
      ―  zhèngguī  ―  regular; standard
      ―  zhèngkǎi  ―  regular script
  5. precisely; directly; perfectly
    前方  ―  zhèng qiánfāng  ―  straight ahead
      ―  zhèng nán  ―  due south
    書檯隔籬 [Cantonese, trad.]
    书台隔篱 [Cantonese, simp.]
    zoeng1 cong4 hai2 zeng3 zoeng1 syu1 toi4-2 gaak3 lei4. [Jyutping]
    (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  6. primary; chief; main; full
      ―  zhèngwén  ―  main body
    主任  ―  zhèng fù zhǔrèn  ―  [full] director and deputy director
    省級省级  ―  zhèngxǐngjí  ―  [full-]provincial level
  7. pure; unmixed; authentic; true
    紅色红色  ―  zhèng hóngsè  ―  pure red
  8. pretty; attractive; beautiful
  9. (Cantonese) awesome; fantastic
    餐廳 [Cantonese, trad.]
    餐厅 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ji1 gaan1 caan1 teng1 zeng3 aa3! [Jyutping]
    This restaurant is awesome!
  10. just now; right now; in the process of
      ―  zhèng děng zhe ne.  ―  I'm waiting.
    外面下雪  ―  Wàimiàn zhèngzài xiàxuě.  ―  It's snowing outside.
    時候上海讀書 [MSC, trad.]
    时候上海读书 [MSC, simp.]
    Nà shíhòu wǒ zhèng zài Shànghǎi dúshū. [Pinyin]
    At that time I was studying in Shanghai
  11. just; exactly; precisely
    剛才 [MSC, trad.]
    刚才 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhèngrú nǐ gāngcái shuō de. [Pinyin]
    Precisely as you have said just now
  12. to straighten; to make straight
    帽子  ―  bǎ màozǐ zhèngzhèng  ―  to straighten out one’s hat
  13. to make right; to rectify; to correct
      ―  zhèngyīn  ―  to correct one's pronunciation
  14. (numeral) ten duodecillion(1040)
  15. (mathematics) regular
    六邊形六边形  ―  zhèng liùbiānxíng  ―  regular hexagon
    四面體四面体  ―  zhèng sìmiàntǐ  ―  regular tetrahedron
  16. (mathematics) positive; plus
    整數整数  ―  zhèng zhěngshù  ―  positive integer
  17. (physics) positive
      ―  zhèng  ―  positive pole
  18. (time) sharp; on the dot
      ―  zhèng  ―  noon
    而家五點 [Cantonese, trad.]
    而家五点 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ji4 gaa1 hai6 ng5 dim2 zing3. [Jyutping]
    It's 5 o'clock on the dot.
  19. (Hakka, Teochew) only; merely
  20. (Hakka, Teochew) just; just now
  21. (Hakka, Teochew) only then; only after
  22. (Hakka, Teochew) Used to emphasize that something is/is not.
  23. (Southern Min) right (direction)
  24. a surname
  25. (tally marks) five (successive strokes of are added in writing sequence to tally a count of five per character)

Synonyms

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Antonyms

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  • (antonym(s) of right): (Hokkien, Teochew) (, “left”)

Compounds

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See also

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Chinese numerals
104 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 1048
(wàn) 亿 () (zhào) (Taiwan) (jīng) (Taiwan) (gāi) () (ráng) (gōu) (jiàn) (zhèng) (zài) ()
萬億万亿 (wànyì)
(Mainland China)
/亿亿
(Mainland China)

Pronunciation 2

[edit]

Note:
  • ciăng - vernacular;
  • cĭng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (23)
Final () (121)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsyeng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ɕiᴇŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡ɕiɛŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ɕiæŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ciajŋ/
Li
Rong
/t͡ɕiɛŋ/
Wang
Li
/t͡ɕĭɛŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕi̯ɛŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhēng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zing1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsyeng ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.teŋ/
English 1st (month)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 17171
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*tjeŋ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. first (month of the lunar year)
      ―  xīnzhēng  ―  first month of the lunar new year
  2. bull's eye; centre of target
  3. target; goal
  4. Original form of (zhēng, “to levy”).
  5. Original form of (zhēng, “to go on a punitive expedition”).

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しょう) (shō); (せい) (sei)
  • Korean: 정(正) (jeong)
  • Vietnamese: chính (), chánh ()

Others:

  • Lao: ຈຽງ (chīang, first month of the lunar year)
  • Lü: ᦵᦈᧂ (ṫseng, “first month in Dai lunar calendar, starting in November”)
  • Northern Thai: ᨠ᩠ᨿᨦ (first month of the lunar year)
  • Shan: ၸဵင် (tsǎeng, first month of the Shan year, starting December-January)
  • Ahom: 𑜋𑜢𑜂𑜫 (chiṅ, first month of the lunar year)
  • Vietnamese: giêng (first month of the Vietnamese lunar year, starting January-February)

Japanese

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Kanji

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(First grade kyōiku kanji)

  1. correct
  2. justice
  3. (arithmetic) positive
  4. (geometry) regular

Readings

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Compounds

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Derived terms

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 1
kan'on

Noun

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(せい) (sei

  1. correctness

Pronoun

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(せい) (sei

  1. : (humble) I or me, the first person singular (used by males)

Numeral

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(せい) (sei

  1. A number of ten-duodecillion (1040) in modern Japanese since 17th century.
  2. 5, as tally marks. Similar to four vertical lines followed by a slanted horizontal line crossing through them, this character is used to count to 5 stroke by stroke. Thus this kanji written up to the third stroke represents 3. After the fifth and final stroke, when this character is completed, one starts writing this character again to count to higher numbers.

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 1
goon

Prefix

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(しょう) (shō-

  1. (history) "senior" ranking for (-i, Japanese courtier rank)
    Antonym: (ju-)
    (しょう)(いち)()
    shōichī
    senior rank 1
    (しょう)(さん)()
    shōsanmi
    senior rank 3
    (しょう)()()
    shōkui
    senior rank 9
  2. : exactly (of a number)

Adjective

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(しょう) (shō-na (adnominal (しょう) (shō na), adverbial (しょう) (shō ni))

  1. proper; straight, direct; genuine, true

Numeral

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Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 1
on'yomi

(しょう) (shō

  1. ten-duodecillion (1040)

Etymology 3

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Proper noun

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Kanji in this term
ただし
Grade: 1
nanori
Kanji in this term
まさし
Grade: 1
nanori

(まさし) or (ただし) or (たゞし) (Masashi or Tadashi

  1. a male given name

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC tsyengH).

Pronunciation

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  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕɘ(ː)ŋ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 바를 (bareul jeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (straight; upright; erect).

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese (MC tsyeng).

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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(eumhun 정월(正月) )

  1. hanja form? of (first (month of the lunar year))
  2. hanja form? of (target)

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: chinh ((chi)(thịnh)(thiết)), chánh[1][2], chính[3][4][1][2][5]
: Nôm readings: chánh[3][4][1][2][5], chênh[1], chính[3][4][1][2][6], chếnh[1][7][2][5][6], chiếng[3], chỉnh[1], giêng[1]

  1. Chữ Hán form of chánh (chief; head).
  2. Chữ Hán form of chính (main; major, chief; just, righteous).
  3. Nôm form of chếnh.

Derived terms

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References

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