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See also:
U+4EAC, 京
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EAC

[U+4EAB]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EAD]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
8 strokes

Han character[edit]

(Kangxi radical 8, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 卜口火 (YRF), four-corner 00906, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 88, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 299
  • Dae Jaweon: page 187, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 284, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+4EAC

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𡬱
𢂋
𦣿
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
京-oracle.svg 京-bronze.svg 京-seal.svg 京-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

According to Shuowen, from , where the lower is reduced to .

Etymology 1[edit]

Either from:

Within Chinese, cognate with (OC *kraŋʔ, “large”), (OC *ɡraŋ, “whale”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • kiaⁿ - vernacular;
  • keng - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕiŋ²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕiŋ²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕin³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
    /t͡ɕi¹³/ ~陵城
    Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕin³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕaŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕin⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kin⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kin²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /keŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /keŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kiŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiŋ⁵⁵/
    /kiã⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /keiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kiã³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /keŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kiajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ging1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]raŋ/
    English hill; capital city

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6828
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kraŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. capital (city)
        ―  jīngchéng  ―  capital city
        ―  jīng  ―  capital city and its surrounding area
        ―  Tàijīng  ―  (Thailand) Bangkok (the capital city of Thailand)
        ―  jīng  ―  (dated) Mexico City (the capital city of Mexico)
    2. Short for 北京 (Běijīng, “Beijing”). after 1949
      /   ―  jīng  ―  Beijing opera
        ―  jīngqiāng  ―  Beijing accent
    3. Short for 南京 (Nánjīng, “Nanjing”). during 1927 - 1948
    4. Short for 京都 (jīngdū, “Kyoto”). when referring Japan-related topics
    5. tall mound
    6. large barn
    7. large; great
    8. ten million, 107
    9. ten quadrillion, 1016
    10. septillion, 1024
    11. A hundred nonillion, 1032
    See also[edit]
    Chinese numerals
    104 108 1012 1016 1020 1024 1028 1032 1036 1040 1044 1048
    (wàn) 亿 () (zhào) (Taiwan) (jīng) (Taiwan) (gāi) () (ráng) (gōu) (jiàn) (zhèng) (zài) ()
    萬億万亿 (wànyì)
    (Mainland China)
    /亿亿
    (Mainland China)

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (きょう) (kyō); (けい) (kei)
    • Korean: (, gyeong)
    • Vietnamese: kinh ()

    References[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    From Vietnamese Kinh, via Cantonese.



    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕiŋ²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡ɕiŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕiŋ²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕiə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕĩn³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕiŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕĩ⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡ɕin³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕin²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕiŋ¹³/
    /t͡ɕi¹³/ ~陵城
    Hohhot /t͡ɕĩŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕiŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡ɕin⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕin³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕaŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕiʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡ɕiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕin³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕin³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕin⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kin⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kin²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /keŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /keŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kiŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiŋ⁵⁵/
    /kiã⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kiŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /keiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kiã³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /keŋ²³/

    Adjective[edit]

    1. ethnic Vietnamese from China

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. capital city
    2. ten quadrillion (short scale); ten thousand billion (long scale); 1016
    3. Tokyo
    4. Kyoto

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    きょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠiæŋ).

    Noun[edit]

    (きょう) (kyōきやう (kyau)?

    1. capital city
    2. Short for 京都 (Kyōto, Kyōto (a city in Kyōto, Japan)).
      京言葉(きょうことば) (kyōkotoba)
      (きょう)着倒(きだお)れ、大阪(おおさか)()(だお)
      Kyō no kidaore, Ōsaka no kuidaore
      (please add an English translation of this example)

    Affix[edit]

    (きょう) (kyōきやう (kyau)?

    1. capital city
      Synonym: (literary) (raku)
    2. (specifically) Kyōto (a city in Kyōto, Japan)
      Synonym: (literary) (raku)
    3. (especially) Tōkyō (a province of Japan)
      上京(じょうきょう) (jōkyō)

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    みやこ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    (miya, imperial palace) +‎ (ko, place).

    Noun[edit]

    (みやこ) (miyako

    1. the place where the emperor resides
    2. a city that acts as an economic and political center; capital
    3. metropolis

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    けい
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    Number[edit]

    (けい) (kei

    1. 10,000,000,000,000,000, 1016, (US) ten quadrillion, (UK) ten thousand billion

    See also[edit]

    Japanese numerical compounds with (けい) (kei)
    1016 2 × 1016 3 × 1016 4 × 1016 5 × 1016 6 × 1016 7 × 1016 8 × 1016 9 × 1016 1017 1018
    (いっ)(けい) (ikkei) ()(けい) (nikei) (さん)(けい) (sankei) (よん)(けい) (yonkei) ()(けい) (gokei) (ろっ)(けい) (rokkei) (なな)(けい) (nanakei) (はっ)(けい) (hakkei) (きゅう)(けい) (kyūkei) (じゅっ)(けい) (jukkei) (ひゃっ)(けい) (hyakkei)

    Korean[edit]

    Alternative forms[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    From Middle Chinese (MC kˠiæŋ). (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “what is its historical reading?”)

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun 서울 (seoul gyeong))
    (eumhun (gyeong gyeong))

    1. Hanja form? of (capital).
    2. Hanja form? of (10,000,000,000,000,000, 1016, (US) ten quadrillion, (UK) ten thousand billion).

    Compounds[edit]

    See also[edit]

    References[edit]

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]
    • Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 대법원, Daehanmin'guk Daebeobwon) (2018). Table of hanja for personal names (인명용 한자표 / 人名用漢字表, Inmyeong-yong hanja-pyo), page 3. [3]

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    : Hán Việt readings: kinh[1][2][3][4][5][6], nguyên
    : Nôm readings: kinh[1][2][3], kiêng[1][2][3][7], kềnh[1], kình[1]

    Noun[edit]

    (kinh)

    1. chữ Hán form of kinh (capital city).

    Adjective[edit]

    (Kinh)

    1. chữ Hán form of Kinh (ethnically Vietnamese).

    Verb[edit]

    (kiêng)

    1. Nôm form of kiêng (to respect).

    References[edit]