Beijing

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See also: bèijǐng and Běijīng

English[edit]

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
Central Beijing, with the boundaries defined by the Ming and Qing era city walls still distinct to the east and south
Xinhuamen, the south gate of Zhongnanhai in central Beijing, with the slogan "Serve the People"

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

c. 1958, the atonal Hanyu Pinyin[1] romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of Chinese 北京 (Běijīng), composed of (north, northern) and (jīng, capital), distinguishing it from Nanjing to the south, and first applied informally during the reign of the Yongle Emperor of the Ming Dynasty, who preferred to rule from Beijing but was obliged to treat Nanjing as a secondary capital by the dynastic injunctions of his father the Hongwu Emperor. The name continued a practice of several preceding dynasties—especially those of nomadic conquerers from the north such as the Jin and Liao—of maintaining a number of separate capitals designated by their cardinal directions. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /beɪˈd͡ʒɪŋ/, /ˌbeɪˈd͡ʒɪŋ/, enPR: bāʹjǐngʹ
    • (file)
  • (hyperforeign) IPA(key): /beɪˈʒɪŋ/, /ˌbeɪˈʒɪŋ/[2]
  • Rhymes: -ɪŋ

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing

  1. A direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China. [from c. 1958]
    • 1976 [1966], Hao Ran, “Debut”, in Wong Kam-ming, transl., Revolutionary Literature in China: An Anthology[2], White Plains, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., →ISBN, →LCCN, →OCLC, page 92:
      Liu Lao-zheng sidled right up to Zao-hua and said: “That’s right. I went to Beijing [Peking] to visit with my daughter. Zao-hua, I hear that you have become the workpoint recorder.” []
      Liu Lao-zheng pulled out an abacus from a sack he was carrying over his shoulder. “Huala, huala,” he shook it several times and said: “I bought one in Beijing. I’ll lend it to you to use.”
    • 2020 August 7, Steven Lee Myers, Keith Bradsher, “Beijing Launches Another Demolition Drive, This Time in Its Bucolic Suburbs”, in The New York Times[3], →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 07 August 2020, Asia Pacific‎[4]:
      Backhoes moved house by house, laying waste to a community called Xitai that was built in a plush green valley on the northern edge of Beijing, only a short walk from the Great Wall of China.
    • 2022 October 24, Yuan Li, “A Lonely Protest in Beijing Inspires Young Chinese to Find Their Voice”, in The New York Times[5], →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 24 October 2022, Business‎[6]:
      A protester unfurled two banners on a highway overpass in central Beijing on Oct. 13, denouncing Xi Jinping as a “despotic traitor.” China’s censors went to great lengths to scrub the internet of any reference to the act of dissent, prohibiting all discussion and shutting down many offending social media accounts.
    • 2023 March 22, “China: Sandstorms blanket Beijing as air pollution spikes”, in Deutsche Welle[7], archived from the original on 22 March 2023[8]:
      Beijing regularly faces dust storms in March and April due to its proximity to the Gobi desert as well as deforestation throughout northern China.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:Beijing.
  2. (metonymically) The government of the People's Republic of China. [from late 20th c.]
    • 1980, Melvin Gurton, Byong-Moo Hwang, China under Threat: The Politics of Strategy and Diplomacy[9], Johns Hopkins University Press, →ISBN, →LCCN, →OCLC, page 210:
      In Beijing’s view, in the absence of an explicit treaty provision, the central line of the main channel—the Thalweg principle—provided a legal basis for delimiting the boundary in the two rivers. On this basis, Beijing claimed that 600 of the rivers’ 700 islands—including Zhenbao Island on the Ussuri River, just 180 miles southwest of an important Soviet city, Khabarovsk—belonged to the P.R.C.
    • 1992, Richard Nixon, “The Pacific Triangle”, in Seize the Moment[10], Simon & Schuster, →ISBN, →LCCN, →OCLC, page 181:
      In the Shanghai Communiqué of 1972, we recognized the fact that both Beijing and Taipei viewed Taiwan as part of China but unequivocally expressed our support for a peaceful settlement of the unification issue. While we should not alter the fundamental pillars of our policy, we should consider certain steps that will raise Taiwan's international standing.
    • 2022 June 2, Cate Cadell, Ellen Nakashima, “Beijing chafes at Moscow’s requests for support, Chinese officials say”, in The Washington Post[11], →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 06 June 2022[12]:
      Russian officials have raised increasingly frustrated requests for greater support during discussions with Beijing in recent weeks, calling on China to live up to its affirmation of a “no limits” partnership made weeks before the war in Ukraine began. But China’s leadership wants to expand assistance for Russia without running afoul of Western sanctions and has set limits on what it will do, according to Chinese and U.S. officials.
    • 2023 June 15, Didi Tang, “Spotify removes protest song Glory to Hong Kong”, in The Times[13], →ISSN, →OCLC, archived from the original on 15 June 2023, World‎[14]:
      While Beijing has credited the law with restoring peace and order to the city, it has been criticised by rights groups and western governments for imprisoning pro-democracy activists and undermining civil freedoms.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:Beijing.

Usage notes[edit]

Rarely used until 1979.[3] Note that cultural terms such as Peking duck, Pekingese, Peking opera and Peking University use Peking irrespective of Beijing.

Synonyms[edit]

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

See also[edit]

Province-level divisions of the People's Republic of China in English (layout · text)
Provinces: Anhui · Fujian · Guangdong · Gansu · Guizhou · Henan · Hubei · Hebei · Hainan · Heilongjiang · Hunan · Jilin · Jiangsu · Jiangxi · Liaoning · Qinghai · Sichuan · Shandong · Shaanxi · Shanxi · Taiwan (claimed) · Yunnan · Zhejiang
Autonomous regions: Guangxi · Inner Mongolia · Ningxia · Tibet Autonomous Region · Xinjiang
Municipalities: Beijing · Tianjin · Shanghai · Chongqing
Special administrative regions: Hong Kong · Macau

References[edit]

  1. ^ “Languages Other than English”, in The Chicago Manual of Style[1], Seventeenth edition, University of Chicago Press, 2017, →DOI, →LCCN, →OCLC, page 652: “Wade-Giles Postal atlas Pinyin [] Pei-ching (Pei-p’ing) Peking (Peiping) Beijing”
  2. ^ Chung, Karen Steffen (2016), “Wade–Giles Romanization System”, in The Routledge Encyclopedia of the Chinese Language, Taylor & Francis, →ISBN, →OCLC: “Some good choices still ended up causing confusion, such as the now nearly universal pronunciation of the Pinyin 'j' as in 'Beijing' as [ʒ] instead of [dʒ] as in jingle, which would be a very close approximation of the correct [tɕ].”
  3. ^ Wade-Giles-romanization, in Encyclopædia Britannica: "The Chinese themselves experimented with several systems to transcribe local expressions for non-Chinese publications, but in mainland China these were all replaced officially in 1979 by the clearer Pinyin romanization system."

Further reading[edit]

Asturian[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing ?

  1. Alternative form of Beixín

Central Huasteca Nahuatl[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing

  1. Beijing (the capital city of China)

Finnish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈbei̯jiŋː/, [ˈbe̞i̯j(ː)iŋː]
  • Rhymes: -eijiŋː
  • Syllabification(key): Bei‧jing

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing (rare)

  1. Alternative form of Peking.

Declension[edit]

Inflection of Beijing (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative Beijing
genitive Beijingin
partitive Beijingiä
illative Beijingiin
singular plural
nominative Beijing
accusative nom. Beijing
gen. Beijingin
genitive Beijingin
partitive Beijingiä
inessive Beijingissä
elative Beijingistä
illative Beijingiin
adessive Beijingillä
ablative Beijingiltä
allative Beijingille
essive Beijinginä
translative Beijingiksi
abessive Beijingittä
instructive
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of Beijing (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative Beijingini
accusative nom. Beijingini
gen. Beijingini
genitive Beijingini
partitive Beijingiäni
inessive Beijingissäni
elative Beijingistäni
illative Beijingiini
adessive Beijingilläni
ablative Beijingiltäni
allative Beijingilleni
essive Beijinginäni
translative Beijingikseni
abessive Beijingittäni
instructive
comitative
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative Beijingisi
accusative nom. Beijingisi
gen. Beijingisi
genitive Beijingisi
partitive Beijingiäsi
inessive Beijingissäsi
elative Beijingistäsi
illative Beijingiisi
adessive Beijingilläsi
ablative Beijingiltäsi
allative Beijingillesi
essive Beijinginäsi
translative Beijingiksesi
abessive Beijingittäsi
instructive
comitative
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative Beijingimme
accusative nom. Beijingimme
gen. Beijingimme
genitive Beijingimme
partitive Beijingiämme
inessive Beijingissämme
elative Beijingistämme
illative Beijingiimme
adessive Beijingillämme
ablative Beijingiltämme
allative Beijingillemme
essive Beijinginämme
translative Beijingiksemme
abessive Beijingittämme
instructive
comitative
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative Beijinginne
accusative nom. Beijinginne
gen. Beijinginne
genitive Beijinginne
partitive Beijingiänne
inessive Beijingissänne
elative Beijingistänne
illative Beijingiinne
adessive Beijingillänne
ablative Beijingiltänne
allative Beijingillenne
essive Beijinginänne
translative Beijingiksenne
abessive Beijingittänne
instructive
comitative
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative Beijinginsä
accusative nom. Beijinginsä
gen. Beijinginsä
genitive Beijinginsä
partitive Beijingiään
Beijingiänsä
inessive Beijingissään
Beijingissänsä
elative Beijingistään
Beijingistänsä
illative Beijingiinsä
adessive Beijingillään
Beijingillänsä
ablative Beijingiltään
Beijingiltänsä
allative Beijingilleen
Beijingillensä
essive Beijinginään
Beijinginänsä
translative Beijingikseen
Beijingiksensä
abessive Beijingittään
Beijingittänsä
instructive
comitative

French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Mandarin 北京 (Běijīng). Doublet of Pékin.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing ?

  1. (chiefly Canada) Synonym of Pékin

German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈbeɪ̯dʒɪŋ/
  • Hyphenation: Bei‧jing

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing n (proper noun, genitive Beijings or (optionally with an article) Beijing)

  1. (uncommon) Synonym of Peking
    • 2023 December 3, Shi Ming, “Chinas neue Westpolitik: Lieber zweimal hinsehen”, in Die Tageszeitung: taz[16], →ISSN:
      Als im September die deutsche Außenministerin Annalena Baerbock im US-Fernsehen Chinas Staats- und Parteichef Xi Jinping unverhüllt als Diktator bezeichnete, bestellte Beijing umgehend den deutschen Botschafter ein.
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Further reading[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Norwegian Bokmål Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nb
China Central Television Headquarters, located in Beijing, China.

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Mandarin Chinese 北京 (Běijīng, Beijing), first part from (northern), from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ba (to carry (on back), shoulder). Last part from (jīng, capital), either from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-gaŋ (hill, ridge, mountain), or of Austroasiatic origin.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /bæjˈdʒɪŋ/
  • Rhymes: -ɪŋ
  • Hyphenation: Bei‧jing

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing

  1. Beijing (the capital city of China)
    Historisk har Beijing først og fremst vært et sentrum for administrasjon, kultur og åndsliv.
    Historically, Beijing has primarily been a center of administration, culture and intellectual life.

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Beijing” in Store norske leksikon

Portuguese[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Unadapted borrowing from Mandarin 北京 (Běijīng). Doublet of Pequim.

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing

  1. Synonym of Pequim

Romanian[edit]

Romanian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ro

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Mandarin 北京 (Běijīng).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [bejˈʒiŋ], [bejˈʒiŋɡ]

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing n

  1. Beijing (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)

Declension[edit]

Spanish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Mandarin 北京 (Běijīng). Doublet of Pekín.

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • IPA(key): (everywhere but Argentina and Uruguay) /beiˈʝin/ [bei̯ˈʝĩn]
  • IPA(key): (Buenos Aires and environs) /beiˈʃin/ [bei̯ˈʃĩn]
  • IPA(key): (elsewhere in Argentina and Uruguay) /beiˈʒin/ [bei̯ˈʒĩn]

  • Rhymes: -in
  • Syllabification: Bei‧jing

Proper noun[edit]

Beijing ?

  1. Synonym of Pekín