Peking

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See also: Péking

English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

c. 1655, romanization of the Mandarin pronunciation of Chinese 北京 (Běijīng), q.v. The early Portuguese and Jesuits such as Francis Xavier used the spelling Paquim; Abraham Ortelius used C. Paquin for his 1572 Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, the first modern atlas; Italian Jesuit Martino Martini used Peking in his 1654 Latin De Bello Tartarico Historia and 1655 Novus Atlas Sinensis, which were quickly translated into English and later used by Joan Blaeu for his 1665 Atlas Maior. Peter Heylyn's Cosmographie changed its spelling from Paquin in the 1652 edition to Peking in the 1658 edition, but both Pekin and Peking were used interchangeably in English until the Chinese Imperial Post adopted Peking as its official transcription in the 1890s.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /piːˈkɪŋ/,[1][2][3] /peɪ.ˈkɪŋ/[1][2]
  • enPR: pēʹkǐngʹ, pāʹkǐngʹ
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -ɪŋ
  • Hyphenation: Pe‧king

Proper noun[edit]

Peking

  1. Dated form of Beijing, a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China.
    • 1655, The History of That Great and Renowned Monarchy of China[1], page 273:
      The Emperour hearing of the ill ſucceſſe of this Affairs, began to think of leaving the Northern parts, where his Royal City of Peking is ſituated, and to paſſe to Nankuing which is far more Southward; but he was diſſwaded from this intended courſe as well by his loyal, as diſloyal ſubjec͡ts : by theſe, that they might give him up more ſpeedily into the enemies hands, before their treachery was diſcovered; and by the others, leſt his flight might trouble the Kingdome more, and diſcourage all his Subjec͡ts from giving their beſt aſſiſtance; for they thought the City impregnable, being fortified with ſo ſtrong a Garriſon; nor did they doubt that the Kings preſence would draw the ſources of the whole Kingdom to him.
    • 1972 February 20, President Richard Nixon, Nixon in China (The Film)[2], Agana, Guam: Richard Nixon Presidential Library, 15:48 from the start:
      This is not a time for a long speech but, I would not want this opportunity to pass without saying just a word with regard to the significance of this moment. Some of you may recall that it was two and a half years ago that right here in Guam, I announced a new direction for American foreign policy based on the principles of self-reliance, self-respect- equal dignity for all nations, large and small throughout the world. And tomorrow, I will take off from Guam for Shanghai and Peking, the first President of the United States ever to visit China. Guam, I know it is said, is where the American day begins. And I would hope that all of you today would join me in this prayer, that with this trip to China, a new day may begin for the whole world. Thank you very much.
    • 1989 June 4, Kate Adie, Archive: Chinese troops fire on protesters in Tiananmen Square - BBC News[3], Peking: BBC News, published 2014, 0:02 from the start:
      The noise of gunfire rose from all over the center of Peking. It was unremitting.
    • For more quotations using this term, see Citations:Peking.
  2. (metonymically) The government of the People's Republic of China; the central leadership of the Chinese Communist Party.

Usage notes[edit]

Cultural terms using Peking such as Peking duck and Peking opera are the standard English language forms. However, as a reference to the city itself, Peking, though common in English into the 1980s,[4] is less common than the pinyin-derived Beijing in standard English and can feel dated and/or historical. The adjectival form Pekingese is more common than the more recently generated terms Beijingese and Beijinger.

Coordinate terms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Translations[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Peking” in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Peking”, in Merriam–Webster Online Dictionary.
  3. ^ Peking”, in Collins English Dictionary.
  4. ^ Peking,Beijing at Google Ngram Viewer

Further reading[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Czech[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Peking m

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Peking in Kartotéka Novočeského lexikálního archivu
  • Peking in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Dutch[edit]

Dutch Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nl

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Peking n

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)

Finnish[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpekiŋː/, [ˈpe̞kiŋː]
  • Rhymes: -ekiŋː
  • Syllabification: Pe‧king

Proper noun[edit]

Peking

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China).

Declension[edit]

Inflection of Peking (Kotus type 5/risti, no gradation)
nominative Peking
genitive Pekingin
partitive Pekingiä
illative Pekingiin
singular plural
nominative Peking
accusative nom. Peking
gen. Pekingin
genitive Pekingin
partitive Pekingiä
inessive Pekingissä
elative Pekingistä
illative Pekingiin
adessive Pekingillä
ablative Pekingiltä
allative Pekingille
essive Pekinginä
translative Pekingiksi
instructive
abessive Pekingittä
comitative
Possessive forms of Peking (type risti)
possessor singular plural
1st person Pekingini Pekingimme
2nd person Pekingisi Pekinginne
3rd person Pekinginsä

Derived terms[edit]


German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Peking n (proper noun, genitive Pekings or (optionally with an article) Peking)

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)
    Synonym: (rare) Beijing

Usage notes[edit]

  • In German, Peking remains the vastly predominant form of the name in all contexts (except perhaps sinologist literature and the like).

Derived terms[edit]

Further reading[edit]


Hungarian[edit]

Wikipedia-logo.png
 Peking on Hungarian Wikipedia

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛkiŋɡ]
  • Hyphenation: Pe‧king
  • Rhymes: -iŋɡ

Proper noun[edit]

Peking

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)

Declension[edit]

Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative Peking
accusative Pekinget
dative Pekingnek
instrumental Pekinggel
causal-final Pekingért
translative Pekinggé
terminative Pekingig
essive-formal Pekingként
essive-modal
inessive Pekingben
superessive Pekingen
adessive Pekingnél
illative Pekingbe
sublative Pekingre
allative Pekinghez
elative Pekingből
delative Pekingről
ablative Pekingtől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
Pekingé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
Pekingéi
Possessive forms of Peking
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. Pekingem
2nd person sing. Pekinged
3rd person sing. Pekingje
1st person plural Pekingünk
2nd person plural Pekingetek
3rd person plural Pekingjük

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]


Interlingua[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Peking

  1. Peking (the former name of Beijing, a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Serbo-Croatian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sh

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /pěkiŋɡ/
  • Hyphenation: Pe‧king

Proper noun[edit]

Pèking m (Cyrillic spelling Пѐкинг)

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)

Declension[edit]


Slovak[edit]

Slovak Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sk

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Peking m (genitive Pekingu)

  1. Beijing, Peking (the capital of China)

References[edit]

  • Peking in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

Swedish[edit]

Swedish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sv

Alternative forms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

Peking ? (genitive Pekings)

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)

Anagrams[edit]


Tagalog[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From English Peking.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /ˈpekiŋ/, [ˈpexɪŋ]

Proper noun[edit]

Péking

  1. Beijing, Peking (a direct-administered municipality, the capital city of China)