Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
See also:
U+9A5A, 驚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9A5A

[U+9A59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9A5B]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 187, +12, 22 strokes, cangjie input 廿大尸手火 (TKSQF), four-corner 48327, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1446, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45013
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1970, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4576, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9A5A

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
驚-seal.svg 驚-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kraː, *kreŋ, *kreŋʔ
*kaŋʔ, *kreŋʔ
*kreŋ
*kreŋʔ
*kreŋʔ, *ɡreŋs
*keŋʔ
*kreŋʔ, *ɡreŋ, *ɡreŋs
*kreŋs
*ɡreŋ
*ɡreŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kreŋ): phonetic  (OC *kreŋs) + semantic , as horses are skittish (easily startled).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • geng1 - vernacular;
  • ging1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • giăng - vernacular;
    • gĭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kiaⁿ - vernacular;
    • keⁿ/kiⁿ - vernacular (limited use, e.g. 驚蟄);
    • keng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kiajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/
    English be afraid

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6877
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to fear; to be afraid
    2. (of a horse etc.) to be startled; to shy
    3. to frighten; to scare
    4. scary; frightening
    5. fearfully; I'm afraid that ...
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 害怕 (“to fear; to be afraid of”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 害怕懼怕畏懼
    Mandarin Beijing 害怕
    Taiwan 害怕
    Harbin 害怕發毛
    Jinan 害怕打怵
    Muping 害怕
    Luoyang 害怕
    Jiedian
    Xi'an 害怕怯火
    Xuzhou 嫌怕打怵
    Yinchuan 害怕
    Lanzhou 害怕怯乎怯豁
    Ürümqi 害怕
    Wuhan 嚇不過
    Chengdu 害怕虛火
    Guiyang 害怕
    Liuzhou
    Yangzhou 害怕怕懼懼乎
    Nanjing 嚇怕
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Shunde
    Foshan
    Zhongshan
    Dongguan
    Hong Kong (Weitou)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan 𢗉
    Kaiping 𢗉
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang 𢗉
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Hakka Meixian 怕畏
    Changting
    Wuping
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan 害怕
    Xinzhou 著怕
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Min Nan Xiamen 驚惶懾屎
    Quanzhou 懾屎
    Zhangzhou 驚惶
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi 驚惶
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Yilan
    Magong
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Johor Bahru
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Pinghua Nanning
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Hangzhou 怕慌發毛
    Wenzhou
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha 畏怯
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune–Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (kinh)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.