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See also:
U+9A5A, 驚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9A5A

[U+9A59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9A5B]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

(radical 187, +12, 22 strokes, cangjie input 廿大尸手火 (TKSQF), four-corner 48327, composition)

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1446, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 45013
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1970, character 18
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4576, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9A5A

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. *

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
驚-seal.svg 驚-bigseal.svg
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kraː, *kreŋ, *kreŋʔ
*kaŋʔ, *kreŋʔ
*kreŋ
*kreŋʔ
*kreŋʔ, *ɡreŋs
*keŋʔ
*kreŋʔ, *ɡreŋ, *ɡreŋs
*kreŋs
*ɡreŋ
*ɡreŋs

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kreŋ): phonetic  (OC *kreŋs) + semantic , as horses are skittish (easily startled).

Pronunciation[edit]


Note:
  • geng1 - vernacular;
  • ging1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • giăng - vernacular;
    • gĭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kiaⁿ - vernacular;
    • keⁿ/kiⁿ - vernacular (limited use, e.g. 驚蟄);
    • keng - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (111)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kˠiæŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kᵚiaŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kiaŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kiajŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kiɐŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kĭɐŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ki̯ɐŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jīng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    jīng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/
    English be afraid

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6877
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kreŋ/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to fear; to be afraid
    2. (of a horse etc.) to be startled; to shy
    3. to frighten; to scare
    4. scary; frightening
    5. fearfully; I'm afraid that ...
    Synonyms[edit]
    Dialectal synonyms of 害怕 (“to fear; to be afraid of”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , , , , , , , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 害怕, 懼怕, 畏懼
    Mandarin Beijing 害怕
    Taiwan 害怕,
    Harbin 害怕, 發毛
    Jinan 害怕, , 打怵
    Muping 害怕,
    Luoyang 害怕,
    Jiedian
    Xi'an 害怕, , 怯火
    Xuzhou 嫌怕, 打怵
    Yinchuan 害怕,
    Lanzhou 害怕, , 怯乎, 怯豁
    Ürümqi 害怕
    Wuhan 嚇不過,
    Chengdu 害怕, 虛火,
    Guiyang 害怕,
    Liuzhou
    Yangzhou 害怕, , 怕懼, 懼乎
    Nanjing 嚇怕,
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou , , ,
    Hong Kong , ,
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Foshan ,
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Taishan 𢗉
    Kaiping (Chikan) 𢗉
    Dongguan
    Shaoguan ,
    Yunfu ,
    Yangjiang 𢗉
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Kuala Lumpur
    Gan Nanchang
    Lichuan
    Hakka Meixian , 怕畏, ,
    Changting
    Wuping
    Ninghua
    Yudu
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Sabah
    Senai
    Singkawang
    Huizhou Jixi ,
    Jin Taiyuan 害怕,
    Xinzhou 著怕,
    Min Bei Jian'ou , , ,
    Dikou
    Songxi
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang
    Wuyishan
    Shibei
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Changle
    Fuqing
    Yongtai
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning
    Zhouning
    Fuding
    Min Nan Xiamen , 驚惶, , 懾屎
    Quanzhou , , 懾屎
    Zhangzhou , 驚惶,
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Wuqi 驚惶
    Hsinchu
    Taitung
    Lukang
    Yilan
    Magong
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Johor Bahru
    Haikou
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian
    Pinghua Nanning ,
    Wu Shanghai ,
    Suzhou ,
    Hangzhou , , , 怕慌, 發毛
    Wenzhou ,
    Chongming
    Danyang
    Jinhua
    Ningbo ,
    Xiang Changsha , 畏怯
    Shuangfeng
    Loudi

    Compounds[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Readings[edit]


    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (gyeong) (hangeul , revised gyeong, McCune–Reischauer kyŏng, Yale kyeng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (kinh)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.