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Translingual[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script
光-oracle.svg 光-bronze.svg 光-silk.svg 光-bigseal.svg 光-seal.svg

The character shows the rays of the sun, with the lower lines squared and balanced off.

Han character[edit]

(radical 10 +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 火一山 (FMU), four-corner 90211, composition ⿱⿱)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1350
  • Dae Jaweon: page 262, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 266, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5149

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation[edit]


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuɑŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kuaŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kuɑŋ²¹/
Jinan /kuaŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kuaŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kuaŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuaŋ²¹/ ~頭
/kuaŋ²⁴/ 副詞
Xining /kuɔ̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kuɑ̃³¹/
Ürümqi /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /kuã̠/
Nanjing /kuaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kuɑ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kuɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kuɑŋ¹³/
/kuə¹³/ ~油油
Hohhot /kuɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kuɑ̃⁵³/
Suzhou /kuɑ̃⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kuɑŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
Hui Shexian /ko³¹/
Tunxi /kau¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kaun³³/
Xiangtan /kɔn³³/
Gan Nanchang /kuɔŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɔŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kwɔŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kŋ̍⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuaŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ³³/
/kɯŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ²³/
/kui²³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (28)
Final: (102)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: guāng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwɑŋ/ /kʷɑŋ/ /kuɑŋ/ /kwaŋ/ /kuɑŋ/ /kuɑŋ/ /kwɑŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (28)
Final: (102)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: guàng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwɑŋH/ /kʷɑŋH/ /kuɑŋH/ /kwaŋH/ /kuɑŋH/ /kuɑŋH/ /kwɑŋH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
guāng ‹ kwang › /*kʷˤaŋ/ light, brightness

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4506 0 /*kʷaːŋ/
4517 0 /*kʷaːŋs/

Definitions[edit]

  1. light, beam, ray
    透過門縫進來 / 透过门缝进来  ―  Yī shù guāng tòuguò ménféng shè jìnlái.  ―  A beam of light shone through the door.
  2. only
  3. to make bare
  4. shiny
  5. until none is left
    已經所有 / 已经所有  ―  wǒ yǐjīng yòngguāng le suǒyǒu de qián  ―  I've already used up all of my money
    /   ―  màiguāng le  ―  completely sold out

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひかり
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 光る ‎(hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).[1][2]

Pronunciation[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ひかり, romaji hikari)

  1. a physically perceived light: a light, a gleam, shining, glittering
    ダイヤモンドの (ひかり)
    daiyamondo no hikari
    a diamond's glitter / shine / twinkling
  2. a metaphorical light: glory, a glimmer, a gleam
    前途 (ぜんと) (ひかり) (うしな)
    zento ni hikari o ushinau
    to lose light regarding the future → future prospects grow dim
    解決 (かいけつ)への (みち) (ひかり) ()げかける
    kaiketsu e no michi ni hikari o nagekakeru
    to shed light on the way to a solution
  3. (in compounds) optics
     (ひかり)ファイバー
    hikari faibā
    optical fiber

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ひかり, romaji Hikari)

  1. a place name, such as that of Hikari City in Yamaguchi Prefecture
  2. one of the bullet train services running on the Tōkaido/Sanyō shinkansen
  3. A surname​.
  4. A female given name

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term
ひかる
Grade: 2
Irregular

Nominalization of the verb 光る ‎(hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [çika̠ɾ̠ɯᵝ]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana ひかる, romaji Hikaru)

  1. A male given name

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

/kwau//kwɔː//kɔː//koː/

From Middle Chinese ‎(kwang, light, brightness). Compare modern Mandarin guāng and Hakka kông, Min Nan kong.

Pronunciation[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

‎(hiragana こう, romaji , historical hiragana くわう)

  1. A male given name

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

Korean[edit]

Hanja[edit]

‎(gwang) (hangeul , revised gwang, McCune-Reischauer kwang, Yale kwang)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

(quang, cuông, quàng, quăng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.