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See also:
U+5149, 光
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5149

[U+5148]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+514A]

Translingual[edit]

Han character[edit]

Stroke order
6 strokes

(radical 10, +4, 6 strokes, cangjie input 火一山 (FMU), four-corner 90211, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 124, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1350
  • Dae Jaweon: page 262, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 266, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5149

Chinese[edit]

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
光-oracle.svg 光-bronze.svg 光-silk.svg 光-seal.svg 光-bigseal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (fire) +  (kneeling person) – fire over a person's head, emphasizing the shining of light (Shuowen).

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hwaŋ (shine; bright; yellow). Cognate with (OC *ɡʷaːŋ, “yellow”), (OC *kʰʷaːŋs, “bright; well-lit”), Burmese ဝင်း (wang:, bright).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: guǎng - "only".
Note:
  • kng/kuiⁿ - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.
Note:
  • geng1 - vernacular;
  • guang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kuɑŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kuaŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kuɑŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kuaŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kuaŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kuaŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kuaŋ²¹/ ~頭
    /kuaŋ²⁴/ 副詞
    Xining /kuɔ̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kuɑ̃³¹/
    Ürümqi /kuɑŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kuaŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kuã̠/
    Nanjing /kuaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kuɑ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuɒ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /kuɑŋ¹³/
    /kuə¹³/ ~油油
    Hohhot /kuɑ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kuɑ̃⁵³/
    Suzhou /kuɑ̃⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kuɑŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /kuɔ³³/
    Hui Shexian /ko³¹/
    Tunxi /kau¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kuan³³/
    Xiangtan /kɔn³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kuɔŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /koŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɔŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kwɔŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kŋ̍⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuoŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuaŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ³³/
    /kɯŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kuaŋ²³/
    /kue²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (102)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kwɑŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷɑŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwɑŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guāng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷˁaŋ/
    English light, brightness

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4506
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷaːŋ/
    Notes

    Definitions[edit]

    1. light; beam; ray (Classifier: m;  m)
    2. glory; pride
      台灣 / 台湾  ―  Táiwān zhī guāng  ―  the pride of Taiwan; someone who has brought glory to Taiwan
    3. bright
      Antonyms: (àn), (hēi)
    4. shiny
    5. to make bare; to be naked
      走路 / 走路  ―  guāngzhe jiǎo zǒulù  ―  to walk barefoot
      /   ―  guāngzhe ne.  ―  I'm not decent.
    6. only
    7. Particle used after verbs to show exhaustion or completion. until none is left
      /   ―  mài guāng le  ―  completely sold out

    Synonyms[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (こう) ()
    • Korean: (, gwang)
    • Vietnamese: quang ()

    Pronunciation 2[edit]



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (102)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kwɑŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʷɑŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwaŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kwɑŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guàng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4517
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʷaːŋs/

    Definitions[edit]

    1. to color

    Further reading[edit]


    Japanese[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひかり
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    ⟨pi1kari⟩ → */pʲikari//ɸikari//hikari/

    From Old Japanese.

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 光る (hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).[1][2]

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (ひかり) (hikari

    1. a physically perceived light:
      1. a light, beam, illumination
      2. a gleam, glow, ray
      3. a glimmer, shine, sparkle
        ダイヤモンドの(ひかり)
        daiyamondo no hikari
        a diamond's glitter / shine / twinkling
      4. a luster/lustre, polish, sheen
    2. a metaphorical light:
      1. glory, influence, power
      2. a glimmer, gleam
        前途(ぜんと)(ひかり)(うしな)
        zento ni hikari o ushinau
        to lose light regarding the future → future prospects grow dim
        解決(かいけつ)への(みち)(ひかり)()げかける
        kaiketsu e no michi ni hikari o nagekakeru
        to shed light on the way to a solution
      3. a displaying, putting on airs
      4. a vision, eyesight
    3. (optics) relating to light or vision: optical, photo-
      (ひかり)ファイバー
      hikari faibā
      optical fiber
    4. (colloquial) Short for 光り物 (hikarimono): sashimi with some of the silver-colored skin left

    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:光.

    Derived terms[edit]

    Idioms[edit]

    Descendants[edit]

    • Okinawan: (fikari)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひかり) (Hikari

    1. a placename, such as that of a city in Yamaguchi Prefecture
    2. one of the bullet train services running on the 東海道 (Tōkaido) or 山陽 (San'yō) shinkansen
    3. a surname
    4. a female given name

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ひか(る)
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Nominalization of the verb 光る (hikaru, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    • (Irregular reading)

    Proper noun[edit]

    (ひかる) (Hikaru

    1. a male given name

    Etymology 3[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    こう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    /kʷau//kʷɔː//kɔː//koː/

    From Middle Chinese (MC kwɑŋ).

    Compare modern Mandarin (guāng), Hakka (kông), and Min Nan (kong).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Affix[edit]

    (こう) ( (historical kana くわう)

    1. light, gleam, shine
    2. gleaming, shining
    3. scenery
    4. glory, honor/honour, pride
    5. enlightening
    6. exhaust, run out
    Derived terms[edit]

    Proper noun[edit]

    (こう) ( (historical kana くわう)

    1. a male or female given name

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean[edit]

    Hanja[edit]

    (eumhun (bit gwang))

    1. light

    Okinawan[edit]

    Kanji[edit]

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings[edit]

    Compounds[edit]

    Etymology 1[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ふぃちゃい
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with Japanese (hikari).

    The stem form of verb 光ゆん (fichayun, to shine, gleam).

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ふぃちゃい, rōmaji fichai)

    1. light
    2. lush, polish, sheen
    Derived terms[edit]

    Etymology 2[edit]

    Kanji in this term
    ふぃかり
    Grade: 2

    Borrowed from Japanese (hikari).

    Doublet of (fichai) above.

    Pronunciation[edit]

    Noun[edit]

    (hiragana ふぃかり, rōmaji fikari)

    1. light
    2. (rare, obsolete) authority, power, influence, honor

    Derived terms[edit]

    References[edit]

    1. ^ フィチャイ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.
    2. ^ フィカリ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Old Japanese[edit]

    Etymology[edit]

    Nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 光る (pi1karu, to shine, to glitter, to gleam).[1][2]

    Noun[edit]

    (pi1kari) (kana ひかり)

    1. a light

    Citations[edit]

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:光.

    Descendants[edit]

    • Japanese: (hikari)

    References[edit]

    1. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Vietnamese[edit]

    Han character[edit]

    (quang)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.