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Gw u9053.svg
U+9053, 道
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9053

[U+9052]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9054]

Translingual[edit]

Stroke order
12 strokes
Stroke order
道-order.gif

Han character[edit]

(radical 162, +9, 13 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 12 strokes in mainland China and Japanese, cangjie input 卜廿竹山 (YTHU), four-corner 38306, composition)

Derived characters[edit]

References[edit]

  • KangXi: page 1262, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39010
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1754, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3864, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9053

Chinese[edit]

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Classical)
  • (Wu)
  • Tao (English)

Glyph origin[edit]

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
道-bronze.svg 道-silk.svg 道-seal.svg 道-bigseal.svg

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'uːʔ): semantic (walking) + phonetic (OC *hljuʔ, *hljus).

Etymology[edit]

Possibly derived from (OC *duːs, “to go along, to bring along, to conduct”):

  • > "to explain" > "to talk about", and
  • > "road, way".

Cognate with Proto-Hmong-Mien *kləuX (road, way) (White Hmong kev (road)). See also (OC *hljuʔ, *hljus).

Pronunciation 1[edit]


Note: “dàor” is used when as a lemma in senses a) “way, path, road” b) “thin line” c) “unit of measure which equals to 10 μm”.
Note: dou3 - only used in 知道.
Note: tō͘ - vernacular (俗).
Note:
  • dau5 - vernacular;
  • dau4 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (89)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/dɑuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/dɑuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/dɑuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dawX/
Li
Rong
/dɑuX/
Wang
Li
/dɑuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱɑuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dào
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
dou6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dào
Middle
Chinese
‹ dawX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[kə.l]ˁuʔ/
English way

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11669
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*l'uːʔ/

Definitions[edit]

  1. way; path; road
      ―  dào  ―  road
  2. (historical) circuit: an administrative division of late imperial China comprising 2 or more commanderies
  3. method; principle
  4. (Buddhism) the Marga; the Way of bodhi or enlightenment leading to nirvana through spiritual stages
  5. (philosophy, Taoism) the Way; the Tao; the Dao: the way of nature and/or the ideal way to live one's life
  6. (Christianity) Logos; the Word
  7. Short for 道教 (Dàojiào, “Taoism”).
  8. Short for 道士 (dàoshì, “Taoist priest”).
  9. (religion) doctrine; teachings
    /   ―  chuándào  ―  to preach
  10. to say; to utter
    能說會 / 能说会  ―  néngshuōhuìdào  ―  can talk really well (idiom)
  11. Classifier for long things.
    閃電 / 闪电  ―  dào shǎndiàn  ―  a bolt of lightning
      ―  dào  ―  a river
    /   ―  dào féng  ―  a crack
    彩虹  ―  dào cǎihóng  ―  a rainbow
  12. Classifier for barriers.
    籬笆 / 篱笆  ―  dào líbā  ―  a fence
  13. Classifier for courses in a meal: dish
      ―  dào cài  ―  a dish of food
  14. Classifier for questions (in an exam), orders or proclamations.
    公文  ―  dào gōngwén  ―  a proclamation
    命令  ―  dào mìnglìng  ―  an order
  15. A surname​.
Synonyms[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Descendants[edit]

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (どう) ()
  • Korean: (, do)
  • Vietnamese: đạo ()

Pronunciation 2[edit]



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dǎo
Middle
Chinese
‹ dawH ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˁuʔ-s/
English show the way

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions[edit]

  1. Alternative form of (dǎo, “to direct; to guide; to lead; to conduct”).

References[edit]


Japanese[edit]

Kanji[edit]

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. road; way

Readings[edit]

Compounds[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Kanji in this term
どう
Grade: 2
goon

/dau//dɔː//doː/

From Middle Chinese (MC dɑuX). Compare modern Mandarin (dào), Cantonese (dou6).

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(どう) (だう (dau)?

  1. Tao (the way of nature), Taoism
  2. (chiefly historical) a region of Japan consisting of multiple provinces or prefectures
    Feudal Japan was divided into several ; the only remaining is Hokkaidō. (Often translated as circuit.)

Proper noun[edit]

(どう) (だう (dau)?

  1. A surname​.

Etymology 2[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
Irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
3
[suffix] (obsolete) attaches to place names, indicating a road to that place
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3[edit]

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
Irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
3
[suffix] a road, a street
[suffix] attaches to place names, indicating a road to that place
[suffix] attaches to a time duration, indicating a trip taking that length of time
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4[edit]

Kanji in this term
みち
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
(uncommon)
(rare)
(rare)

Originally a compound of (mi, honorific prefix) +‎ (chi, road, street, way).[3] The prefix mi was in reference to the (kami, god, spirit) of roads. Perhaps also cognate with *miti, a potentially road-related element found in Old Korean toponyms.[4]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

(みち) (michi

  1. a way, a street, a road, an alley, a path, a pass for local traffic
    (みち)(ある)
    michi o aruku
    to walk down a road
  2. (figuratively) a road, a path
    (しょう)()への(みち)
    shōri e no michi
    the path to victory
  3. a way of doing something
    使(つか)(みち)がわからないもの
    tsukaimichi ga wakaranai mono
    something whose method of usage is not known
Usage notes[edit]

This is the most common term for “road”, “street”, or “way” in modern Japanese.

Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

(みち) (Michi

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

Etymology 5[edit]

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
Irregular

Used as ateji in various names.

Proper noun[edit]

(おさむ) or (すすむ) or (ただし) or (ただす) or (なおし) or (まこと) or (みちひろ) or (もとい) or (わたる) (Osamu or Susumu or Tadashi or Tadasu or Naoshi or Makoto or Michihiro or Motoi or Wataru

  1. A male given name

Proper noun[edit]

(たお) or (とおる) or (ふみ) (Tao or Tōru or Fumi

  1. A female given name

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  4. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2013), “From Koguryo to T'amna”, in Korean Linguistics[1] (PDF), volume 15, issue 2, John Benjamins Publishing Company, DOI:10.1075/kl.15.2.03vov, pages 222-240.

Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Chinese (MC dɑuX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 또ᇢ〯 (Yale: ttwǒw)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 길〮 (Yale: kíl) 도〯 (Yale: twǒ)

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [to̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

Hanja[edit]

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (gil do))

  1. Hanja form? of (principle, reason; moral). [noun]
  2. Hanja form? of (province). [noun]
  3. Hanja form? of (road; path). [affix]

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Vietnamese[edit]

Han character[edit]

: Hán Việt readings: đạo ((đỗ)(hạo)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], dạo[4]
: Nôm readings: dạo[1][2][3][6][4][5][7], đạo[1][2][3][4][7], đảo[2], nhạo[3]

  1. Hán tự form of đạo (code of conduct; religion).
  2. Nôm form of dạo (to walk; to stroll).

Compounds[edit]

References[edit]